Child sexual abuse , also called child molestation , is a form of child abuse in which an adult or older adolescent uses a child for sexual stimulation. Child sexual abuse can occur in a variety of settings, including home, school, or work in places where child labor is common. The global prevalence of child sexual abuse has been estimated at The word pedophile is commonly applied indiscriminately to anyone who sexually abuses a child,  but child sexual offenders are not pedophiles unless they have a strong sexual interest in prepubescent children. Child sexual abuse can result in both short-term and long-term harm, including psychopathology in later life.
Facts for Families, No. Psychological Medicine. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. Journal of Sex Research. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. Some newer techniques such as eye movement desensitization and reprocessing EMDR have been shown to be effective.
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Every nine minutes , a child is sexually assaulted in the U.
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Child sexual abuse , also called child molestation , is a form of child abuse in which an adult or older adolescent uses a child for sexual stimulation.
Child sexual abuse can occur in a variety of settings, including home, school, or work in places where child labor is common. The global prevalence of child sexual abuse has been estimated at The word pedophile is commonly applied indiscriminately to anyone who sexually abuses a child,  but child sexual offenders are not pedophiles unless they have a strong sexual interest in prepubescent children. Child sexual abuse can result in both short-term and long-term harm, including psychopathology in later life.
A well-documented, long-term negative effect is repeated or additional victimization in adolescence and adulthood. A specific characteristic pattern of symptoms has not been identified,  and there are several hypotheses about the causality of these associations. Child abuse , including sexual abuse, especially chronic abuse starting at early ages, has been found to be related to the development of high levels of dissociative symptoms, which includes amnesia for abuse memories.
Because child sexual abuse often occurs alongside other possibly confounding variables, such as poor family environment and physical abuse,  some scholars argue it is important to control for those variables in studies which measure the effects of sexual abuse. Kendler et al. Their examination of a small sample of CSA-discordant twins also supported a causal link between child sexual abuse and adult psychopathology; the CSA-exposed subjects had a consistently higher risk for psychopathologic disorders than their CSA non-exposed twins.
A meta-analysis by Bruce Rind et al. Depending on the age and size of the child, and the degree of force used, child sexual abuse may cause internal lacerations and bleeding. In severe cases, damage to internal organs may occur, which, in some cases, may cause death. Child sexual abuse may cause infections and sexually transmitted diseases.
Vaginitis has also been reported. Research has shown that traumatic stress, including stress caused by sexual abuse, causes notable changes in brain functioning and development. Ito et al. Some studies indicate that sexual or physical abuse in children can lead to the overexcitation of an undeveloped limbic system.
Male and female victims were similarly affected. Navalta et al. Because the abused subjects' verbal SAT scores were high, they hypothesized that the low math SAT scores could "stem from a defect in hemispheric integration. Prevalence of parental child sexual abuse is difficult to assess due to secrecy and privacy; some estimates state that 20 million Americans have been victimized by parental incest as children. Commercial sexual exploitation of children CSEC is defined by the Declaration of the First World Congress against Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children, held in Stockholm in , as "sexual abuse by an adult accompanied by remuneration in cash or in kind to the child or third person s.
CSEC is particularly a problem in developing countries of Asia. In the United Kingdom, the term child sexual exploitation covers any form of sexual abuse which includes an exchange of a resource for sexual activity with a child.
However, in the years since the birth of the concept of child sexual exploitation, the notion of exchange has been widened to include other types of gain, including love, acquisition of status and protection from harm. Children who received supportive responses following disclosure had less traumatic symptoms and were abused for a shorter period of time than children who did not receive support.
The American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry provides guidelines for what to say to the victim and what to do following the disclosure. Therefore, the parental caregiver teaches the child to mask his or her issues. In many jurisdictions, abuse that is suspected, not necessarily proven, requires reporting to child protection agencies, such as the Child Protection Services in the United States. A private environment away from suspected abusers is desired for interviewing and examining.
Leading statements that can distort the story are avoided. The initial approach to treating a person who has been a victim of sexual abuse is dependent upon several important factors:. The goal of treatment is not only to treat current mental health issues, and trauma related symptoms, but also to prevent future ones.
Children often present for treatment in one of several circumstances, including criminal investigations, custody battles, problematic behaviors, and referrals from child welfare agencies.
The three major modalities for therapy with children and adolescents are family therapy , group therapy , and individual therapy. Which course is used depends on a variety of factors that must be assessed on a case-by-case basis. For instance, treatment of young children generally requires strong parental involvement and can benefit from family therapy. Roland C. He suggested that children who are victims of sexual abuse display a range of symptoms that include secrecy, helplessness, entrapment, accommodation, delayed and conflicted disclosure and recantation.
Adults who have been sexually abused as children often present for treatment with a secondary mental health issue, which can include substance abuse , eating disorders , personality disorders , depression , and conflict in romantic or interpersonal relationships.
Generally, the approach is to focus on the present problem, rather than the abuse itself. For instance, a person with a history of sexual abuse suffering from severe depression would be treated for depression. However, there is often an emphasis on cognitive restructuring due to the deep-seated nature of the trauma. Some newer techniques such as eye movement desensitization and reprocessing EMDR have been shown to be effective.
Sexual abuse is associated with many sub-clinical behavioral issues as well, including re-victimization in the teenage years, a bipolar-like switching between sexual compulsion and shut-down, and distorted thinking on the subject of sexual abuse for instance, that it is common and happens to everyone.
When first presenting for treatment, the patient can be fully aware of their abuse as an event, but their appraisal of it is often distorted, such as believing that the event was unremarkable a form of isolation.
Frequently, victims do not make the connection between their abuse and their present pathology. Child sexual abuse prevention programmes were developed in the United States of America during the s. Some programme are delivered to children and can include one-to-one work  and group work.
According to C. Early research in the s and s began to classify offenders based on their motivations and traits. Groth and Birnbaum categorized child sexual offenders into two groups, "fixated" and "regressed".
This study also showed that adult sexual orientation was not related to the sex of the victim targeted, e. Later work Holmes and Holmes, expanded on the types of offenders and their psychological profiles. They are divided as follows: . Causal factors of child sex offenders are not known conclusively. The US Government Accountability Office concluded, "the existence of a cycle of sexual abuse was not established. Offenders may use cognitive distortions to facilitate their offenses, such as minimization of the abuse, victim blaming , and excuses.
Pedophilia is a condition in which an adult or older adolescent is primarily or exclusively attracted to prepubescent children, whether the attraction is acted upon or not. In law enforcement , the term pedophile is sometimes used to describe those accused or convicted of child sexual abuse under sociolegal definitions of child including both prepubescent children and adolescents younger than the local age of consent ;  however, not all child sexual offenders are pedophiles and not all pedophiles engage in sexual abuse of children.
Recidivism rates for sex offenders are lower than for the general criminal population. The definition includes any sexual activity between children that occurs without consent , without equality, or due to coercion ,  whether the offender uses physical force, threats, trickery or emotional manipulation to compel cooperation. When sexual abuse is perpetrated by one sibling upon another, it is known as " intersibling abuse ", a form of incest. Unlike research on adult offenders, a strong causal relationship has been established between child and adolescent offenders and these offenders' own prior victimization, by either adults or other children.
Although there is no known cure for pedophilia,  there are a number of treatments for pedophiles and child sexual abusers. Some of the treatments focus on attempting to change the sexual preference of pedophiles, while others focus on keeping pedophiles from committing child sexual abuse, or on keeping child sexual abusers from committing child sexual abuse again. Cognitive behavioral therapy CBT , for example, aims to reduce attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors that may increase the likelihood of sexual offenses against children.
Its content varies widely between therapists, but a typical program might involve training in self-control, social competence and empathy, and use cognitive restructuring to change views on sex with children. The evidence for cognitive behavioral therapy is mixed. Based on self-disclosure data , a meta-analysis of studies estimated a global prevalence of The rates of self-disclosed abuse for specific continents were as follows: .
A meta-analysis of 65 studies from 22 countries found a global prevalence of In that analysis, Africa had the highest prevalence rate of child sexual abuse A ten-country school-based study in southern Africa in found Rates among year-olds were Comparing the same schools in eight countries between and , age-standardised on the Botswana male sample, there was no significant decrease between and among females in any country and inconsistent changes among males.
The prevalence of child sexual abuse in Africa is compounded by the virgin cleansing myth that sexual intercourse with a virgin will cure a man of HIV or AIDS. The myth is prevalent in South Africa , Zimbabwe ,  Zambia and Nigeria and is being blamed for the high rate of sexual abuse against young children. Child rape is on the rise [ when? Child welfare groups believe that the number of unreported incidents could be up to 10 times that number. The largest increase in attacks was against children under seven.
The virgin cleansing myth is especially common in South Africa , which has the highest number of HIV-positive citizens in the world. Eastern Cape social worker Edith Kriel notes that "child abusers are often relatives of their victims — even their fathers and providers.
A number of high-profile baby rapes appeared since including the fact that they required extensive reconstructive surgery to rebuild urinary, genital, abdominal, or tracheal systems. In , a 9-month-old was raped and likely lost consciousness as the pain was too much to bear. One has been charged.
The infant has required extensive reconstructive surgery. The 8-month-old infant's injuries were so extensive, increased attention on prosecution has occurred. In Bangladesh , child prostitutes are known to take the drug Oradexon , an over-the-counter steroid , usually used by farmers to fatten cattle, to make child prostitutes look larger and older. According to social activists, the steroid can cause diabetes , high blood pressure and is highly addictive.
In India, in what is termed 'caste slavery', an estimated , lower caste women and girls are groomed into prostitution as a family trade.
They are groomed by their own families into prostitution often from birth, sometimes with younger girls stowed under beds to observe others at work. While boys are often preferred to girls in the country, with sex-selective abortions causing a skewed gender ratio, the birth of girls among some low caste villages built around caste slavery is celebrated as future breadwinners. It looked at different forms of child abuse: physical abuse , sexual abuse and emotional abuse and girl child neglect in five evidence groups, namely, children in a family environment, children in school, children at work, children on the street and children in institutions.
The study's  main findings included: Among them, Children on the street, at work and in institutional care reported the highest incidence of sexual assault.
To name abuse feels like a betrayal of the highest order—not only does it shatter the illusions to which we all cling in polite society, but it reopens us up to another assault. It is common, however, for boys and men who have been abused to express confusion about their sexual identity and orientation, whether they identify as straight, gay or bi-sexual. I was sexually abused as a child. And that, of course, makes it harder to seek needed help in the midst of the abuse, or even years later when help is still needed. I used to think I came from great American families, where the relatives up and down my family tree did wonderful and interesting things. Old man and twink do well in school.
Young boy sexually abused. Myths and Facts About Male Sexual Abuse and Assault
You can become mesmerized by what is wrong seeming right, even though you know it is not. The abuser emanates power, becoming a kind of vengeful god, holding sway over even your self-conception. To the abuser, power is the ability to humiliate. But abusing others will never satisfy the abuser until he confronts the humiliation he himself suffered: that is why abuse is serial and compulsive.
Payback is paid forward. The only other response to abuse—when not open rebellion—is to invest that abuse back into the self, in the form of self-hatred, self-medication, and self-harm, and I know from experience that even these inward-facing responses hurt those you love, your girlfriends and friends.
This is all very new to me. When a young mind and body are traumatized, they go into a kind of shock. The events that have occurred are too far outside the window of experience, and so the mind takes over, bent on protection and survival. Memories can be formed, repressed, and stored away, like the Ark of the Covenant at the end of the Indiana Jones movie. I recovered mine only recently, and they came back first in my body—twitches and bruises, aches and pains—the meat of myself trying to make sense of the actions that the mind never processed fully, like a movie where the sound and motion are out of sync.
Sometimes, I think I have answers. I used to think abuse happened to other people, not me. I used to think other people hurt people, not me. I was sure of it. I am capable of great feats of self-delusion. In all of this, I am not alone. Men know, but often forget, that when they say no, people hear it.
Women say no, or a resigned yes due to circumstances, or remain silent to survive often out of fear of a reprisal , and we proceed with the grace and goodwill of a two-ton wrecking ball. Throughout human history, men have consciously and unconsciously acted out their malice and anger, their own feelings of inferiority, upon women—often, it must be said, aided and abetted by alcohol. The brutes also humiliated us. So, once we get elected to office, or produce an Oscar-winning movie, or rise to editor in chief, or fill Madison Square Garden with thousands of people to hear our jokes, we feel that we have won, that we are entitled to a little fun.
We are better than the brutes. We deserve something too. Preaching is not my job. As a literary agent, I try to find people who can change the way we think about the world, often applying the lessons of the past to make sense of the present for a better future.
In the s, an illness called AIDS descended predominantly upon a group of people in this country who had done no harm to anyone; they loved, that is all. Millions died, while others slept, postured, or turned away. The courageous acts of the men and women who refused to be silenced by the stigma and pain associated with AIDS and with being gay ended up forcing the U.
They fought for and won their rights. They saved lives. The revolution began by breaking the silence. Silence equals death. Dominant Ashton getting hard on Chris Jansens ass. Abusing my sleeping friend while his brother's next to him. Old man and twink do well in school. Straight Boys Anal Audition. Incredibly cute gay boy boasts his sexy teen looks.
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Child sexual abuse - Wikipedia
Join one of our weekly chat-based support groups , facilitated by a counselor. Healing can begin when a man recognizes the possible connection between those experiences and common consequences — consequences that can include rocky relationships, lost jobs, self-destructive behaviors, depression, and even violence. Whatever the experience, whatever the consequence, we can help sort through the confusion — safely and anonymously.
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