Natural gas health affects on pregnancy-Gas Leak | Mom Answers | BabyCenter

Unconventional gas drilling UGD has enabled extraordinarily rapid growth in the extraction of natural gas. Despite frequently expressed public concern, human health studies have not kept pace. We investigated the association of proximity to UGD in the Marcellus Shale formation and perinatal outcomes in a retrospective cohort study of 15, live births in Southwest Pennsylvania from — Mothers were categorized into exposure quartiles based on inverse distance weighted IDW well count; least exposed mothers first quartile had an IDW well count less than 0. Multivariate linear birth weight or logistical small for gestational age SGA and prematurity regression analyses, accounting for differences in maternal and child risk factors, were performed.

Natural gas health affects on pregnancy

Natural gas health affects on pregnancy

Natural gas health affects on pregnancy

Right now I am upstairs in Natural gas health affects on pregnancy home under our comforter because I can still smell the fumes in my room, it is all. Additionally several studies that evaluate indoor exposure to NO 2 with passive dosimeters in large cohorts observed similar findings [ 2627 ]. Birth certificate data are considered to be protected health information Teens orgy outdoor it contains personal identifiers, such as geocoded residences. A person who smokes has a higher than normal level of carbon monoxide in her blood. Nationally, the advent and expansion of hydraulic fracturing operations have reduced gasoline prices, decreased some air pollution emissions and driven down U. Answer this question. I find their services crucial to assist me in continuing to give the best care I can to my patients. This test needs to be done very soon after your exposure to be useful. Outcomes, exposure and covariates were obtained from structured questionnaires administered by trained personnel during the first and third trimesters of pregnancy and first year of life.

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Peace River Valley, in northeastern British Columbia, has become known in recent years as a place of hydraulic fracturing for natural gas -- "fracking," as it's commonly called.

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Unconventional gas drilling UGD has enabled extraordinarily rapid growth in the extraction of natural gas. Despite frequently expressed public concern, human health studies have not kept pace. We investigated the association of proximity to UGD in the Marcellus Shale formation and perinatal outcomes in a retrospective cohort study of 15, live births in Southwest Pennsylvania from — Mothers were categorized into exposure quartiles based on inverse distance weighted IDW well count; least exposed mothers first quartile had an IDW well count less than 0.

Multivariate linear birth weight or logistical small for gestational age SGA and prematurity regression analyses, accounting for differences in maternal and child risk factors, were performed. There was no significant association of proximity and density of UGD with prematurity. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Birth certificate data are considered to be protected health information since it contains personal identifiers, such as geocoded residences.

Therefore, it cannot be made available in the manuscript, the supplemental files, or a public repository. The Pennsylvania Department of Health requires Institutional Review Board approval, and data access is password protected. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Unconventional gas development UGD , characterized by advances in engineering, including horizontal drilling and high volume hydraulic fracturing, enables extraction of large amounts of fossil fuel from shale deposits at depths that were previously unapproachable [ 1 ].

In Pennsylvania, UGD in the Marcellus Shale formation has rapidly advanced from only 44 such wells known to be drilled before to 2, wells drilled during the — period of our study, and with continued rapid expansion to as many as 80, forecasted [ 2 ].

Several recent reviews summarizing the evolving UGD process describe the potential for adverse health effects and delineate challenges that have contributed to as yet minimal understanding of public health impact [ 1 , 3 — 4 ]. UGD is a dynamic process encompassing preparation of the site, well development and production, the removal of wastes and the downstream distribution of gas [ 1 ]. The well is drilled vertically into a shale layer often 1. This is followed by the high-pressure injection of approximately 5 million gallons of water to hydraulically fracture the shale layer, allowing the release of gas tightly bound to the shale.

Return or flowback fluids include mixtures of the hydrofracturing agents, hydrocarbon products methane and other volatile organic hydrocarbons including benzene and, of particular toxicological significance, naturally occurring agents dissolved from the shale bed e. Over a thousand diesel truck trips are usually required for site preparation, bringing hydrofracturing fluids and disposing of the approximately 1—2 million gallons of fluid that flows back from the well.

In the western US, flowback fluids are generally rapidly disposed of in deep underground injection wells. Such wells are uncommon in Pennsylvania. UGD operators first discharged to publically owned treatment works, which treated the wastewater and discharged to the regional rivers until it was determined that this practice was associated with increasing concentrations of bromine and other contaminants in drinking water pulled from the rivers [ 7 — 8 ].

Next, the flowback waters were transported to deep underground injection wells in Ohio. However, the resultant mild earthquakes in Ohio have led to a variety of attempted solutions to deal with these flowback fluids on the surface, including impoundments and recycling, thereby increasing the opportunity for human exposure [ 9 ].

This continues to be the current situation in Pennsylvania. As flowback fluids also contain hydrocarbon product, they can be a source of air pollution. Esswein et al. This is pertinent as benzene in air has been associated with adverse birth outcomes [ 11 ]. Wells can be hydrofractured intermittently on multiple occasions to stimulate product flow. This includes condensate tanks and glycol dehydrators to separate dry methane and wet higher carbons such as ethane gas components of product and diesel fuel operated compressors to liquefy gas for shipping via pipelines [ 12 ].

As such, concern about air pollution is both direct flaring of methane gas at well heads, controlled burning of natural gas and release of VOCs including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene and indirect traffic, diesel operated compressors. Major challenges in assessing and quantifying environmental, ecological and human health related effects existing and potential of UGD exist largely due to the dynamic and complex nature of the evolving UGD process itself as well as differences in geology between site locations, UGD technique and community demography.

Together, these factors make it difficult to compare experiences, historically and concomitantly, within and between regional efforts. Several recent studies have provided measurements of likely pollutants, focusing on hydrocarbons found in air [ 13 ] or on thermogenic methane found in shallow drinking water sources [ 12 , 14 — 15 ].

A study in Colorado revealed that those living within 0. A host of environmental and behavioral risk factors have been identified and linked to low birth weight and prematurity.

The mechanism is thought to be one involving oxidative stress or inflammation [ 25 ]. Xu et al. The strength of using birth outcomes is the availability of data and the ability to capture the critical time of exposure and linkage to outcomes within the nine month period [ 26 ]. McKenzie et al. They found an increase in the prevalence of congenital heart defects and, to a lesser extent, neural tube defects with increasing exposure to natural gas extraction.

They also found an increase in birth weight associated with well density. The objective of the present study is to use readily available data on birth outcomes for Southwestern Pennsylvania to investigate the relationship of proximity to UGD and perinatal outcomes for to Individual data on these births was accessed through a password protected application with the PADOH.

Multiple births, records without a valid geocode X, Y coordinate , and those with missing birth outcome and demographic information were excluded from the analysis.

Exact point distances between singleton-birth residences with complete information and natural gas wells were calculated using ArcMap version Three indicator variables were created, using the first quartile Group 1 as the referent group. Mean birth weights in each group were compared using analysis of variance ANOVA , and proportions of SGA and premature infants were compared using chi-square tests.

Outcomes were modeled using multivariate linear regression continuous birth weight or logistic regression SGA and prematurity.

The model for continuous birth weight was also adjusted for gestational age to account for the downward shift in birth weights accompanying shorter gestational ages due to earlier obstetric intervention observed in our dataset from the PADOH as well as nationally [ 30 ]. Fig 1 shows the steps used to eliminate unavailable and missing birth certificate data, leading to the final sample of births with complete information.

This left 22, singleton births available for further analysis in ArcGIS. Birth weight was missing for 0. The remaining 17, births had complete geographical and birth certificate information. Table 1 shows the demographics of these 15, infant-mother pairs by quartile the referent group first quartile and three exposure quartiles as well as the proportions of SGA and premature infants in each group. There were no significant differences in prenatal care, gestational diabetes, child gender, or parity between the referent and exposure quartiles.

Chi-square analyses showed statistically significant differences in the proportions of SGA and preterm births. There were no significant differences in birth weight between the other exposure quartiles and the referent group.

Higher birth weights were also associated with longer gestational ages and being male. The steady increase in SGA across quartiles Table 1 resulted in a progressive increase in odds ratios for SGA unadjusted or adjusted , suggestive of a dose-response relationship. Prematurity was associated with mothers that were older, less educated, had no prenatal care, smoked, had gestational diabetes and had no previous births.

We accessed public records of UGD and birth and used a geographic information system that enabled proximity and density of nearby UGD to be used as a surrogate for exposure. Based on this latter estimate, we identified four groups of mothers of comparable size that gave birth in the study period — in three counties in Southwest Pennsylvania with high levels of UGD activities.

These four groups were relatively similar in various determinants of maternal and child risks for perinatal outcomes but had different levels of exposure i. IDW well count Table 1. The information was readily compatible for multivariate linear and logistic regression analysis in which covariates of risk could be accounted for at least within limits of available birth certificate data in Pennsylvania and contribution of exposure could be assessed. This analysis adds to possible health impact concerns recently described by McKenzie et al.

In contrast to the McKenzie et al. The differences in these studies on effects of UGD on birth weight from Colorado where proximity and density were associated with a protective effect underscore the importance of assessing health impacts in a region-specific fashion. Geological differences are known to account for differences in flowback water composition in different shale gas areas [ 35 ]. Surface disposal sites are not readily available for geolocating, and thus could not be used in our IDW model.

However, impoundments and other sites to which the flowback water is piped or trucked are likely to be near drilling sites, particularly when there are multiple sites in the area, and impoundments have been demonstrated to leak [ 6 , 8 ]. Therefore, the IDW model is still likely to be representative of exposure risk. There are also important regional differences within Pennsylvania that may be pertinent to a comparison of our findings with those of other studies.

The management of flowback fluids presents a risk of air pollution as well as water pollution. Studies with cooperating industries have shown very wide variation from site to site in methane emissions, and in worker benzene exposures [ 11 , 36 ].

Like McKenzie et al. Two other concomitant studies have findings similar to ours concerning birth weight. The PhD thesis of Elaine Hill at Cornell University compared birth outcomes for mothers who resided in regions in Pennsylvania in proximity to wells as a function of time before and after permit and SPUD [ 33 ].

Their model employed a difference-in-differences approach to compare groups that lived near permitted wells versus groups near permitted wells that underwent further development. An increase in prevalence of low birth weight at gestation and reduced 5 minute APGAR scores was reported while no impact on premature birth was detected for offspring of mothers living 1.

Our study is the only one that is specifically limited to counties with intensive shale gas activities in Southwestern PA, thereby minimizing the heterogeneity of demography, geology, climate and other confounding variables. It is only in recent years that drilling technology has rapidly advanced to be able to obtain substantial levels of natural gas tightly bound to deep underground shale layers.

This continually evolving technology greatly differs from the past in using perhaps 5 million, rather than 50, gallons of hydrofracturing fluid under much higher pressures for each well; in having an evolving suite of hydrofracturing chemicals, with over having been used; in laterally bending the well within the shale layers for greater than a kilometer; in drilling in multiple directions from the same well head from larger drill pads for sequential periods of six months or longer; and in many other technological advances.

Recent reviews of shale gas issues in the United States, Canada and Europe have been consistent in commenting on the lack of health-related information [ 1 , 4 ]. This investigation is semi-ecological in nature. We had individual data on birth outcomes and risk factors; however, the final analysis grouped mothers into exposure categories to provide a clearer picture of possible dose-response relationships.

In addition, there may be a number of unknown factors that led to our conclusion that well density was associated with lower birth weight and greater odds of SGA. As in any epidemiological study, these associations do not imply causation and are hypothesis generating only.

The observed associations could be due to a contaminant related to UGD, an unknown confounding factor we were unable to account for in our analyses, or chance. However, the counties under study have relatively stable populations. Proximity is a primitive surrogate for exposure itself and is uninformative of route water, air or etiologic agent. Our observations were based on data deduced from the Department of Environmental Protection DEP of Pennsylvania and assignments of longitude and latitude only from birth certificate data.

Twenty percent of the birth certificate records did not have a corresponding geocode and, since no further information on address or zip code was available, these births were excluded from the analysis.

However, the sociodemographic characteristics of this group were similar to those that were geocoded Table 3. Up until recently, pertinent information from DEP was limited to date of permit request and drilling SPUD and status active, plugged or abandoned. The available well permit number provides information on production and waste data [ 2 ].

Other limitations in the birth dataset included the lack of a birth month and day; we were therefore only able to identify those wells drilled during the birth year of the infant.

Here Are 11 Ways to Cope. Understanding some of the warning signs of a natural gas leak in the home may very well save a life. I also have had an ongoing gas leak in my house and was very worried for my baby. Have your gas heater serviced and tested by an appropriately trained and licensed gasfitter at least once every two years. Extra safety tips for gas heaters Always make sure that a patio heater is stable or fixed, and only use them outdoors. They explained that natural gas replaces oxygen so side affects are headache and nausea things like that.

Natural gas health affects on pregnancy

Natural gas health affects on pregnancy

Natural gas health affects on pregnancy

Natural gas health affects on pregnancy. Headaches and Dizziness

She crawled toward a window opened it up and went back to sleep. She awoke the next morning still feeling ill and vomited many times. I am that child that was in her stomach and 43 years later I have memory problems and slow speech. IT sucks!. I have never had a gas stove as long as I have lived until my husband and I bought our new house a few months ago. We noticed a foul smell in the house but couldnt figure out what it was.

We tried cleaning everything. We noticed it for a few days. I have not been cooking lately because of not feeling well with the pregnancy so i never thought the stove We gave the whole kitchen a once over before we left for vacation. But when we came back it was still there. It wasnt until last night when I suggested it might be gas. There is one knob on our stve that is broken.

My husband checked it and noticed it was on even though we thought it was off. The smell was gone this morning. I dont think I have had too much exposue to it because we sleep upstairs and it didnt really smell up there.

I cant even tell if my sickenss is pregnancy or gas related. I will see my Dr Monday so hopefully she can set me at ease. My friend's son is getting fever every few days. Does this look like a cold sore.

Me and my husband returned from grocery shopping and our friend was in our garage working on a car. The garage was closed and he was repeatedly stepping on the gas pedal to check how it was sounding I guess, the car left major major fumes in my house.

I am 14 weeks, should I just try and get as much fresh air as possible or what? Right now I am upstairs in our y. Right now I am upstairs in our home under our comforter because I can still smell the fumes in my room, it is all. Could this have harmed my unbourn child with been exposed to gas fumes for 4 weeks. I am 10 weeks pregnant and last night about we heard a lot of commotion outside of our apartment door, my boyfriend and i got out of bed and opened our door to a fireman telling us that there is a gas leak in our building and we shouldn't worry, they weren't evacuating the building, they were just going to ventilate it and try to get it out that way.

Well, about minutes later, we heard another knock, the fireman told us that they were now evacuating the building and we needed to get out as quickly as we could. I have a 3 year old son, so I woke him and my boyfriend carried him outside we sat in my car and waited since it was pretty cold last night.

They let us go back into our building, but I got an instant headache last night from how strong the gas was and this morning I could still smell it, even though we slept with our windows open and our sliding glass door cracked last night. I have a bad headache, nauseous and I feel very foggy this morning.

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Health problems that seem to be worse or only occur when the heating is on may be caused by carbon monoxide from a faulty gas heater. Be aware of the symptoms of carbon monoxide and seek medical attention if necessary. If you have an old open-flued gas heater, consider safe alternative heating or replacing with a room-sealed gas heater or split system at the next opportunity. Consider buying an audible carbon monoxide alarm that meets EU or US standards.

Health problems linked to faulty gas heaters A faulty gas heater can cause serious health problems. Symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning include: tiredness shortness of breath headaches dizziness nausea weakness confusion chest pain If you suspect you may be affected by carbon monoxide, open windows and doors, turn off the appliance and go outside to breathe fresh air.

Have your heater serviced regularly All types of gas heaters should be serviced a minimum of every two years by a licenced gasfitter and tested for carbon monoxide spillage. Get your heater serviced if: it has not been serviced for two years. Using carbon monoxide alarms Consider buying an audible carbon monoxide CO alarm. How to use a gas heater safely Always follow the operating instructions on the appliance or in the manual if you have one.

Always: have plenty of ventilation — ventilation is very important as it allows fresh air to come in and fumes to go out avoid running exhaust fans bathroom, kitchen if you have an un-flued or open-flued gas heater, as this may cause carbon monoxide to leak back into the room; this possibility should be tested when you have your heater serviced clean your heater when the heater is off and cool to reduce dust build-up by vacuuming out any duct registers and cold air return vents the register is the central heating duct opening in each room, which can be seen when the cover grill is lifted.

Toxic gases may cause serious health problems in these situations. Replace old gas heaters Heaters do not last forever. Old unflued gas heaters Old unflued gas heaters within the home may not meet current emission standards. Extra safety tips for gas heaters Always make sure that a patio heater is stable or fixed, and only use them outdoors.

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This is called her background risk. This sheet talks about whether exposure to carbon monoxide may increase the risk for birth defects over that background risk. This information should not take the place of medical care and advice from your health care provider.

Carbon monoxide is a gas. It has no color, smell, or taste. Small amounts of carbon monoxide are normally found in our bodies and in the air we breathe. Large amounts of carbon monoxide gas can be released from motor vehicles or poorly working heaters, furnaces, or other fuel burning appliances.

Carbon monoxide poisoning is when too much carbon monoxide gets into the body. When this happens, the blood carries less oxygen to the organs. This can cause organs to become damaged. Signs and symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning can be hard to diagnose. Some symptoms can include headache, nausea, vomiting, and dizziness.

Severe carbon monoxide poisoning can cause death. No pattern of birth defects have been linked to carbon monoxide poisoning. There are reports of carbon monoxide poisoning in pregnant women causing fetal death or fetal brain damage. This causes the baby to receive less oxygen. A small study has shown that fetal death and brain damage only happen when carbon monoxide levels in the mother are high enough to make her lose consciousness to pass out.

However, there are also reports of normal outcomes in pregnancies in which the mother had carbon monoxide poisoning. Timing of exposure and amount of exposure can lead to different effects in the pregnancy. If you have any symptoms that you believe are from carbon monoxide, you should be taken to the emergency room right away. A blood test can be done to measure the amount of carbon monoxide that is in your blood.

This test needs to be done very soon after your exposure to be useful. If you do have carbon monoxide poisoning, you may be given treatment to help you and the baby get rid of the carbon monoxide. The source of the carbon monoxide should be found and the problem corrected to prevent further exposure. My carbon monoxide detector went off. Is my baby at increased risk for problems from carbon monoxide?

If you or other members of your household were not experiencing symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning when the detector went off and you removed yourself from the source of carbon monoxide until the problem was corrected, it is unlikely that risks to your pregnancy are increased.

Installing a carbon monoxide detector is the best way to detect levels of carbon monoxide in your home that could put you at risk for carbon monoxide poisoning. Carbon monoxide detectors can provide an early warning before carbon monoxide builds up to a dangerous level. I just discovered that my furnace has not been working right and it has been releasing carbon monoxide into my home.

Will this increase the risk to my pregnancy? Some studies have shown that exposure to small amounts of carbon monoxide over a long period of time may cause low birth weight or problems with brain development. However, one study showed that women who were exposed to low or moderate levels of carbon monoxide enough to experience nausea and dizziness but not enough to cause them to lose consciousness had babies with normal physical and mental development.

If you discover that the heating source in your home is not working properly, you should have it fixed immediately. If you or the members of your household have not experienced any symptoms from the carbon monoxide, it is unlikely that it would increase the risk to your pregnancy.

Talk with your healthcare provider to see if they recommend any screening for you or the pregnancy. I smoke cigarettes. Will the carbon monoxide from smoking cause problems for the baby?

Smoking cigarettes puts a pregnancy at increased risk for many problems. One of the risks is having a baby with low birth weight. A person who smokes has a higher than normal level of carbon monoxide in her blood.

This means there is less oxygen in the blood. The baby needs a good oxygen supply to grow. Other problems seen in babies of mothers who smoke may be due to carbon monoxide or other substances found in cigarette smoke. It is best that a woman not smoke while she is pregnant. Do I have to stop breastfeeding if I have been exposed to carbon monoxide?

There are no studies looking at carbon monoxide exposure during breastfeeding. If you get carbon monoxide poisoning, you may want to give your body time to recover from any symptoms before breastfeeding. The health care provider treating you will advise you when you are well enough to resume breastfeeding.

Infants are at high risk for developing problems from carbon monoxide exposure. If your baby has also been directly exposed, you should talk to a health care provider immediately. Be sure to talk to your health care provider about all your choices for breastfeeding. Animal studies show carbon monoxide exposure can cause reduced sperm formation. There are no studies data in humans. In general, exposures that fathers have are unlikely to increase risks to a pregnancy.

Besides an emphasis on medication use, Dr. In the last few weeks, MotherToBaby, a service of the Organization of …. Help us help women and their healthcare providers as they make treatment choices in pregnancy and while breastfeeding. You have questions. We have answers. Email An Expert. Fact Sheets. What is carbon monoxide? How can carbon monoxide get into my body? Carbon monoxide can enter the body through the skin or by breathing it in through the lungs.

What is carbon monoxide poisoning? Can carbon monoxide cross the placenta and get to the baby? Can carbon monoxide poisoning cause birth defects or hurt the baby? What if the father has been exposed to carbon monoxide? References Available by Request. Health Professionals Fact Sheets F. View PDF Version.

The ability to consult with Ms. Lori Wolfe to review the literature helps guide me in my treatment of women who wish to become pregnant or are pregnant. Ms Wolfe is always professional and skilled in her mastery of the current literature as it relates to the safety of using psychotropic medications in the pregnant or breastfeeding patient.

I find their services crucial to assist me in continuing to give the best care I can to my patients. Geralyn Carducci, Psychiatrist, WI. Meet An Expert. Miller, PhD. Connect With Us. E-News Sign Up.

Natural gas health affects on pregnancy

Natural gas health affects on pregnancy