Manufacture nylon hosiery-Sustainable hosiery made from recycled nylon - Environment

In , Wallace Carothers , Julian Hill, and other researchers for the DuPont Company studied chains of molecules called polymers , in an attempt to find a substitute for silk. Pulling a heated rod from a beaker containing carbon- and alcohol-based molecules, they found the mixture stretched and, at room temperature, had a silky texture. This work culminated in the production of nylon marking the beginning of a new era in synthetic fibers. Nylon was first used for fishing line, surgical sutures, and toothbrush bristles. DuPont touted its new fiber as being "as strong as steel, as fine as a spider's web," and first announced and demonstrated nylon and nylon stockings to the American public at the New York World's Fair.

Manufacture nylon hosiery

Manufacture nylon hosiery

Manufacture nylon hosiery

Manufacture nylon hosiery

Manufacture nylon hosiery

Kay, G. Nylon was born and changed everything. Hangzhou An Bo Textile Co. Previous A counterweight to fast fashion. Introduced inArden continued to promote it after Some cosmetic companies had been making leg make-up to give legs the appearance of a tan, e.

Maggie green breasts. Stockings and the war

Add to Compare. Manufacturing Process After the material has been wound onto the smaller spool, it is ready to be turned into whatever product it Manufacture nylon hosiery destined to become. Sample Order Free samples Paid samples. Tweets by LechMazur. These are commonly known Manufacture nylon hosiery nylon 6, 6 or simply Courtesy Hagley Museum and Library. And have FDA certification for compression socks. For example, nylon has oxygen molecules whereas, PVC plastic polyvinyl chloride has chloride molecules. Follow City-Data. Primavera Sami hyypia wife was established in in Italy. I remember hosiry about people actually using paint on stockings at one point because other stockings were so hard to find. Synthetic fibers not only changed the fashion industry; they changed how women lived their lives.

Stockings also known as hose , especially in a historical context are close-fitting, variously elastic garments covering the leg from the foot up to the knee or possibly part or all of the thigh.

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  • The term is commonly used to refer to a broad range of polyamides, or synthetic polymers, and encompasses a range of often very different products.
  • Pantyhose are a form of sheer women's hosiery that extend from the waist to the toes.
  • All the glamor and seduction of authentic 3 thread seam stockings, with the added excitement of a contrast colour seam.

Stockings also known as hose , especially in a historical context are close-fitting, variously elastic garments covering the leg from the foot up to the knee or possibly part or all of the thigh. Stockings vary in color, design, and transparency. Today, stockings are primarily worn for fashion and aesthetics , usually in association with mid-length or short skirts.

Historically, even though the word sock is at least as ancient in origin, what men normally wore were often referred to as stockings, probably especially when referring to longer hose. See Hose. Before the s, stockings were made of woven cloth. The first knitting machines were for making stockings. A polished cotton called lisle was common, as were those made in the town of Balbriggan. Before the s, stockings, if worn, were worn for warmth. Women, particularly during the pioneer days, wore long underwear longjohns underneath their long dresses.

In the s, as hemlines of dresses rose, and churches were not heated, women began to wear flesh-colored stockings over their longjohns to cover their exposed legs. Those stockings were sheer, first made of silk or rayon then known as "artificial silk" and after of nylon. The introduction of nylon in by chemical company DuPont began a high demand for stockings in the United States with up to 4 million pairs being purchased in one day.

Nylon stockings were cheap, durable, and sheer compared to their cotton and silk counterparts. When America entered World War II , DuPont ceased production of nylon stockings and retooled their factories to produce parachutes, airplane cords, and rope.

At the end of the war DuPont announced that the company would return to producing stockings, but could not meet demand. This led to a series of disturbances in American stores known as the nylon riots until DuPont was able to ramp up production.

A precursor of pantyhose made an appearance in the s and s, when film and theater productions had stockings sewn to the briefs of actresses and dancers, according to actress-singer-dancer Ann Miller [5] and seen in popular films such as Daddy Long Legs. Today, stockings are commonly made using knitted wool, silk, cotton or nylon see hosiery. The introduction of commercial pantyhose in gave an alternative to stockings, and the use of stockings declined dramatically.

A main reason for this was the trend towards higher hemlines on dresses see minidress. In , U. Stockings are still sometimes preferred to pantyhose for a number of reasons. Spare pairs are also easy to carry if they are ruined. Also, pantyhose do not require garters or garter belts, and do not need to be adjusted as much, whilst also leaving a smoother line under form-fitting clothing.

In modern usage, stocking specifically refers to the form of hosiery configured as two pieces, one for each leg except for American and Australian English , where the term can also be a synonym for pantyhose. The terms hold-ups and thigh highs refer to stockings that stay up through the use of built-in elastic, while the word stockings is the general term or refers to the kind of stockings that need a suspender belt garter belt, in American English , and are quite distinct from tights or pantyhose American English.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the article of clothing primarily worn by women. For the Christmas receptacle filled by Santa Claus, see Christmas stocking.

For other uses, see Stocking disambiguation. History Undressed. Retrieved Nylon: The Story of a Fashion Revolution. Johns Hopkins Univ. Private Screenings: Ann Miller Television production. Turner Classic Movies. Roland Business Policy: Text and Cases. Boothose Hose. Garter Knee highs Pantyhose Stocking. Falsies Lingerie tape. List of lingerie brands. Men's undergarments. Long underwear long johns Union suit. Bra Camisole Undershirt. Categories : History of clothing Hosiery Lingerie Socks.

Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. In other projects Wikimedia Commons. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. A pair of dark grey nylon stockings. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Stockings. Top Bra Camisole Undershirt.

Fairchild Publications, Follow wiseGEEK. DuPont developed a particularly sophisticated approach to marketing its synthetic fibers. Since that time it has always satisfied market needs by focusing on research, with the aim of anticipating fashion trends. If DuPont executives had begun to grow nervous about unrealistic expectations, they grew truly alarmed in September when the Washington News ran a story based on the newly released patent U.

Manufacture nylon hosiery

Manufacture nylon hosiery

Manufacture nylon hosiery. Raw Materials

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Cosmetics and Skin: Cosmetic Stockings

This changed in the United States when DuPont began manufacturing nylon in Nylon stockings went on limited sale in October of that year followed by a national launch at selected stores in Eager American shoppers bought up the new nylons even though they were priced the same as those made of silk Meikle, Commercial quantities of nylon stockings did not reach the rest of the world until after When the United States entered the war, DuPont shifted nylon production to a war footing and production was channeled into national defense uses, including parachutes and bomber tyres, and supplies of nylon for stockings dried up.

Silk stockings were also unavailable, as trade with Japan ceased and the American army requisitioned all stores of silk for parachutes, munitions and other military uses. Above: A shell being loaded into a naval gun left followed by powder bags full of explosives right used fire the gun. Silk was a favoured casing for powder bags as the fabric completely burned away after the gun was fired, reducing the possibility of a premature explosion when the next charge was loaded.

All nylon. Mixture of silk and nylon. Mixture of nylon and rayon. Mixture of silk and cotton. Mixture of nylon and cotton. Mixture of silk and rayon. All rayon stockings not desired. All stockings should first be washed and then taken to any hosiery collection depot. If you cannot take them yourself, ask someone in your neighborhood to pick them up for you.

Although nylon and silk stockings were scarce, American women were not badly off as they still had access to rayon or cotton stockings. Women in England were issued with 60 clothes coupons per year and stockings took two of those plus cash. As silk and nylon stockings vanished from the shelves, women looked to alternatives. Depending on the occasion, what was available, their degree of patriotism and their economic situation, they substituted with stockings made from other fibres, wore socks, covered their legs with trousers, went bare-legged or used leg make-up — also known as cosmetic stockings, liquid stockings, bottled stockings and phantom hose.

Some cosmetic companies had been making leg make-up to give legs the appearance of a tan, e. There were also products that were made specifically as a stocking substitute, such as Doraldina Leg Make-up released by the Doraldina Company in Canned hosiery is the latest solution to the bare-leg problem which is now exciting fashionable London.

A leading store in the British metropolis is now selling in its toilet goods section a thick, smooth cream which, when spread evenly and generously all over the leg, from ankle to well above the knee, has all the appearance of beautiful silk stockings.

It does not crack, it does not irritate the skin in fact, it prevents sunburn , and it does not rub off until removed with the aid of warm water and soap.

Women can choose a shade between the palest beige and dark ochre shades. Actresses are using these bottled stockings considerably, so are girls on seaside vacations, and it requires the very closest and repeated inspection to reveal the fact that the limbs are not clothed in the orthodox manner. The idea of cosmetic stockings gained support during the s and a large number of cosmetic companies made them. As might be expected, the United States had the widest range.

Even so, sales never met early expectations, mainly due to the poor quality of the products. It was very difficult to produce a fluid product that did not separate out in the bottle, dried quickly, and left a water repellent film after it was applied.

Many of the brands suffered from pigment separation and only a few were waterproof. Acceptance and repeat business also suffered from the fact that leg make-up took a long time to apply and remove. In an attempt to drum up sales, some stores ran promotions where you could have your legs painted to see the effect or installed specialist leg make-up bars where you could purchase the cosmetic and get advice on how to apply it for best effect.

Above: An American department store leg make-up bar. Stocks appear to be plentiful. Helena Rubinstein was an early American advocate of the leg bar, opening a Bare-Leg Bar in her 5th Avenue salon in The bar featured leg make-up, special lotions, creams and cosmetics for the legs, a cooling masque for legs and feet, foot talcs and pedicure preparations.

Above: Women having their legs painted in a British department store during the war. As well as the commercial fit-for-purpose products, women also used other cosmetics they had on hand, such as Pan-Cake make-up and face or suntan powders applied over cold or vanishing cream.

The ingredients used included: zinc oxide and titanium dioxide to give covering power; iron oxides, lakes and dyes to provide colour; talc to simulate the sheen of a stocking; humectants such as glycerine or sorbitol to reduce flaking; an adhesive agent such as methyl cellulose, casein or latex to help the mixture stick to the legs; and alcohol to quicken drying.

Some forms contained dyes but many did not. Water constitutes the major proportion of the suspending medium. A useful addition to the liquid should be a small proportion, differing according to the material used, of a wetting or spreading agent.

Too much is not desirable, since the liquid may later lather excessively. The addition of a gum, natural or synthetic, is valuable in promoting adhesion and may even serve to modify texture in a desired manner.

Here again the gum should be used judiciously, excessive amounts thickening the mixture unduly, and preventing uniform spread and quick drying. A leg make-up cream could be made by adding the colours to a cream base in which some oil has been added to give luster. Stick forms, made with a wax-oil mixture would not need additional oils. In England, wartime austerity led some women to try their hand at making their own cosmetic stockings from published recipes.

Some, like the one below, were liquid powders:. The liquid will, of course, consist principally of water, but something must be added to assist spreading properties, to help to hold the powder on and perhaps to hasten evaporation. No heating is required. Mix the two oils. Stir in the water and pass through an emulsifier. Diffusing the glyceryl mono-stearate or other similar substance in a portion of the water.

Mixing these two portions together with sufficient water to produce a creamy liquid. Preparing the emulsion. Adding this to the previously mixed ingredients with light stirring, and finally adding perfume, which may be dissolved in a little alcohol and making up to the desired weight or volume. Having obtained a jar, bottle or stick of cosmetic stocking, women soon discovered that there were a number of obstacles to overcome to achieve the illusion of stockings.

Some beauty experts suggested that leg hair be permanently removed by diathermy thermolysis or electrolysis. Loose skin on the legs and feet also had to be rubbed off to avoid it flaking off and leaving behind light patches. Applying the cosmetic stocking liquid, lotion, cream or stick evenly so that there were no streaks also took practice. Above: Painted Stockings. The model is using Cyclax Stockingless Cream introduced in You may think you give your legs pretty good care.

You see that they get a good lathering when you have your evening bath. You dry with care. But just try smoothing on one of the liquid preparations for leg make-up! It may start on smoothly and evenly, but next thing you know little specks of dead cuticle will rub off, leaving streaks behind! Feet and legs need scrubbing nightly with a brush and soapsuds with an extra workout around the backs of the heels, ankles, insteps and across the tops of the toes.

Rinse off and use a rough towel for drying, rubbing briskly over the points named as well as up and down the legs to remove every flake of dead skin. Finish by smoothing the legs with body lotion, hand lotion or that odd bit of cold cream you want to get rid of. There are three main types of leg make-up: the dark tinted liquids that you apply with cotton, the lotion and cream type that you apply with your hand and the solid stick variety that you stroke on directly. The creamy and lotion types are easiest for me to apply, although I must warn you to be careful about overlapping.

Have the legs slightly moist: immediately after your shower is a good time to put on your liquid stockings. Pour a bit of the lotion into the palm of one hand and use the fingers of the opposite hand to dip and transfer it to the leg. Apply from the knee or just above it down to the tips of the toes.

Work in one direction and be sure to cover all the leg surfaces. Give the application time to dry, then take a clean cloth or old silk stocking and go over the leg. This removes any powdery excess and erases streaks if any. Long Even Strokes If the heavier stick make-up is your choice, first smooth the legs with a bit of cream or body lotion and wipe of the excess. Then apply the make-up from the stick in long even strokes, putting it on as evenly as possible to start with. Then use the palms of the hands to smooth any overlaps and wipe off the excess.

After the surplus cream is removed, dust lightly with tinted bath powder. This keeps down any stickiness that might smudge the hem of your dress and gives a mat-like finish that really looks like stockings. The transparent tinted liquids are applied with cotton wool in long upward or downward strokes and blended while still moist.

A single application looks like pale, sheer evening stockings: two or three coats give a deeper suntanned look for daytime wear. A leg make-up and applicator combined. It was applied by wetting the mitt then stroking the make-up on. Shades: Beige, a light tone; Nut-Meg, a medium shade; and Topaz, a darker bronze shade.

Those women who wanted the produce the illusion of wearing real stockings as closely as possible could do two other things. First, real stockings had a noticeable sheen. To mimic this, some cosmetic stocking mixes could be buffed up after application to make them shine. Second, stockings of the day had obvious heels and leg seams which could be imitated by drawing them on with an eyebrow pencil or something similar. However, drawing a straight line of even thickness down the back of the leg required a good deal of skill and practice and a steady hand.

Clearly, not everyone went to this trouble and many women simply applied the cosmetic stocking and left it at that. The end of the war saw nylon stockings return to the shelves followed by a corresponding decline in the use of substitutes.

Manufacture nylon hosiery