Bioimpedance pregnant women-Bioelectrical impedance analysis during pregnancy and neonatal birth weight.

OBJECTIVE: To generate reference ranges for bioelectrical impedance indices throughout pregnancy and to investigate whether a relationship exists between these indices and the neonatal birth weight. Patients with pregnancy complications, such as hypertensive disorders, diabetes, and antiphospholipides syndrome were excluded. Antrophometric maternal parameters and bioelectrical impedance measurements were performed during the first, second, third trimester of pregnancy, at delivery and 60 days after delivery. Spearman rank correlations and cox proportional hazard modelling were used for statistical purposes. Total and extracellular water amounts significantly increase as pregnancy advances and return to the pre-pregnancy values within 60 days after delivery.

Bioimpedance pregnant women

Bioimpedance pregnant women

Bioimpedance pregnant women

Bioimpedance pregnant women

Bioimpedance pregnant women

Maternal condition that could affect body fluid including: Pre-eclampsia requiring hospital admission. The only identifier will be the actual list of participants, which is required to plan for who needs InBody analysis during their prenatal visit. Clin Nutr 23 : - Am J Clin Nutr 41 : -Pussy sneedville Pre-existing maternal diseases possibly affecting BIA, such as diabetes, hypertensive and renal disorders, were exclusion criteria. The purpose of our study is to find out if using a simple bed side test can tell us information about changes that occur in women's body Bioimpedance pregnant women content. Lyon Med : -

Cockapoo breeder clackton on sea essex. INTRODUCTION

We suggest that a previous pregnancy associated disease may be a risk factor for adverse hemodynamic behavior in a consecutive pregnancy. Bioimpedance pregnant women of fat-free mass by bioimpedance analysis in migrant Asian Indian men and women: a cross validation study. Investigating relationships of pregnancy and health outcomes directly with BIA properties eliminates the need to derive estimates of body-composition. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. Scand J Clin Lab Invest. University of Leicester Working Party. Our data suggest that systemic vascular resistance, which was already decreased at inclusion and further decreased until the 24 th week of gestation, drives cardiac output by reduced afterload and a higher heart rate. Article PubMed Google Scholar Instruments were checked daily for accuracy, using a Classic kitchen cabinet filler strip resistor. Measurements of cardiac Bioimpedance pregnant women volume in various body positions in pregnancy and during Caesarean section: a comparison between thermodilution and impedance cardiography. Methods Between andpregnant women were included in this prospective cohort study after providing written informed consent. Biological indexes considered in the derivation of the bioelectrical impedance analysis.

Background: An increase in total body water is common in normal pregnancy.

  • Other: Bioimpedance Analyser Bio-electrical impedance analysis BIA measures whole body or regional impedance by means of an electric current transmitted at different frequencies.
  • Properties of bioelectrical impedance analysis BIA reflect body-composition and may serve as stand-alone indicators of maternal health.
  • No permission was obtained for individual data publication of each patient included.
  • Background: An increase in total body water is common in normal pregnancy.

Background: An increase in total body water is common in normal pregnancy. It is thought to be an important mechanism of maternal adaptation to pregnancy. Objective: The aim of the present study was to assess longitudinal changes in body water compartments in pregnant women and to correlate these measurements with the course of pregnancy. Design: One hundred seventy-three pregnant women with apparently normal, single pregnancies participated in this longitudinal study.

Anthropometric measurements and multifrequency bioelectrical impedance were performed during the first, second, and third trimesters of pregnancy. Total body water, extracellular water, and intracellular water values in normal pregnancies showed a significant, progressive increase throughout pregnancy.

In women with gestational hypertension, total body water, extracellular water, and intracellular water values showed an opposite trend, suggesting a lack of plasma volume expansion through fluid-retention mechanisms. Changes in body composition during pregnancy and their effects on pregnancy outcome represent a field of major interest in perinatal medicine. Multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis MF-BIA allows the determination of body composition, ie, total body water TBW , fat mass, and fat-free mass.

MF-BIA is based on the body's conduction of variable frequency multifrequency to electrical current to determine total conductor volume of the body. Because water and electrolytes are the determinants of electrical conduction in the body, TBW is easily evaluated by BIA. Many studies validated the use of this method for estimating TBW in humans 1 — 4. It was shown that human pregnancy is associated with an increase in blood volume, which has proven to be an increase in plasma volume relative to red blood cell mass 5.

Reactance was shown to be a unique predictor of extracellular water ECW and can explain TBW-prediction variabilities as measured with dilution techniques in pregnant and in nonpregnant women 4 , 7. Changes in maternal body weight and TBW reported in various cross-sectional 8 — 10 and longitudinal 11 — 13 studies ranged from 9. The increase in TBW in pregnancy is important to clinicians. Fetal and placental development, increases in amniotic fluid volume, and changes in maternal blood cause increases in TBW.

The increase in TBW is responsible for a large proportion of weight gain during pregnancy. Additionally, a common finding in pregnancy is various degrees of edema, indicating an increase in the ECW volume. Few studies of changes in body fluids during pregnancy have been conducted because of the accompanying difficulties, ie, such studies are too laborious and invasive for pregnant women. Important advances in the development of noninvasive techniques for assessing TBW have been made.

The aim of this study was to assess longitudinal changes in ECW and TBW in a group of pregnant women periodically during pregnancy—during the first, second, and third trimesters—and to correlate these measurements with the course of pregnancy.

The study was performed in pregnant patients with apparently normal, single pregnancies. All of the women reported their usual menstrual periods to be normal frequency: 28—d cycle. The Human Subjects Committees of the University approved the study, and each subject gave her written, informed consent before participation. MF-BIA measurements were performed in each subject at 3 time points during pregnancy: the first trimester between weeks 9 and 13 , the second trimester between weeks 16 and 24 , and the third trimester between weeks 32 and The subjects were instructed to consume their usual diets and to refrain from strenuous physical activity on the day before the tests.

After an overnight fast, the women came to the laboratory for measurements of standing height and body weight with a stadiometer and a calibrated scale, respectively. Subsequently, on the same day, MF-BIA was performed and hematocrit was evaluated with use of a standard method and instrumentation. Determination of bioelectrical impedance was made by using a tetrapolar multifrequency impedance analyzer Human IM Scan; Dyetosystem, Milan, Italy.

The women, clothed but wearing no shoes or socks, lay supine on a table made of nonconductive materials while the measurements were performed as described previously 14 , TBW was calculated by using the prediction formula of Lukaski et al 4 , ECW by using the prediction formula of Segal et al 16 , and intracellular water ICW as the difference between the latter 2 quantities.

The patients were submitted to BIA measurement before the hypertensive treatment was given. No patients with significant edema were enrolled. No patients had proteinuria only. Two-factor repeated-measures analysis of variance and Tukey's test of significance were performed to evaluate differences in MF-BIA and in the calculated body water compartments.

Of the pregnant women, 57 were excluded from the analysis because they showed signs of chronic hypertension or other pathology ie, hypertension before the 20th week of gestation, gestational diabetes, abnormal oral-glucose-tolerance-test result, or intrauterine growth retardation , 53 were excluded because they had not completed 3 required measurements for different reasons, 50 had normal pregnancies, and 13 had gestational hypertension.

We excluded 13 women because they were taking drugs, corticosteroids, or low-dose aspirin. Descriptive analyses of data obtained from the control and hypertensive groups are shown in Table 1.

Clinical data of the women with a normal pregnancy control group and those with gestational hypertension 1. The BIA indexes showed an increasing trend in the control group and a decreasing trend in the hypertensive group. In fact, BIA 5 increased significantly between the first and third trimesters and between the second and third trimesters.

Two-factor repeated-measures analysis of variance showed that TBW, ECW, and ICW were not significantly different between the hypertensive and control groups in the first trimester but were significantly different between the 2 groups in the second and third trimesters. TBW, ECW, and ICW increased significantly and progressively throughout pregnancy in the control group and were significantly different between the first and second and third trimesters and between the second and third trimesters.

On the contrary, TBW, ECW, and ICW decreased significantly and progressively in the hypertensive group throughout pregnancy and were significantly different between the first and second and third trimesters and between the second and third trimesters Table 2 and Figure 2.

Total body water TBW , extracellular water ECW , and intracellular water ICW in the women with a normal pregnancy control group and in those with gestational hypertension 1. The BIA index was significantly lower in the hypertensive group than in the control group in the second and third trimesters, suggesting a lack of plasma volume expansion through fluid-retention mechanisms in the hypertensive group Figure 1.

There were no significant differences in hematocrit between the 3 trimesters data not shown. As a consequence, cardiac output must increase. At the same time, the placental implantation process is responsible for the presence of a low-resistance shunt the placenta , with a subsequent overall effect of a decrease in blood pressure.

Hemodynamic changes seem to play a central role in maternal adaptation to pregnancy. Fluid retention is very important in increasing plasma volume, which, in turn, is fundamental in cardiac output increase. Under normal conditions, TBW and plasma volume are strictly interrelated 18 ; in turn, plasma volume correlates with birth weight in both humans and animals A defect in plasma volume expansion in pregnancy has been associated with poor pregnancy outcome and low birth weight 19 , 20 and, after a subclinical period, preeclampsia.

Therefore, an evaluation of variations in TBW in each of the 3 trimesters of pregnancy can provide important data about the maternal physiologic adaptation to pregnancy. The examinations must begin in the first trimester, when some pathologic events preeclampsia and intrauterine growth retardation are not established. It is well known that, during a normal pregnancy, there is progressive fluid retention with a subsequent increase in TBW 21 and in plasma volume.

The significant differences in BIA 5 , BIA 50 , and BIA between the 2 groups of pregnant women during the 3 trimesters accounted for the known increase in body-fluid volume in the control group. TBW, evaluated by MF-BIA, increased significantly during the 3 trimesters in the control group but not in the hypertensive group, in whom there was a decrease in TBW, strongly suggesting a hemodynamic maladaptation to pregnancy.

A reduction in circulating plasma volume is one indicator of a maladaptation to pregnancy in women who develop gestational hypertension. The mechanism for this relates to the balance between the increase in vascular diameter and endothelial damage that might occur in the absence of fluid redistribution and contribute to the development of gestational hypertension BIA is an easy and painless technique associated with high patient compliance. Hematocrit did not change significantly during pregnancy and hence it cannot be considered a good predictor of hemodynamic adaptations in pregnancy.

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Volume Article Contents. Multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis in women with a normal and hypertensive pregnancy Herbert Valensise.

Oxford Academic. Google Scholar. Angela Andreoli. Stefano Lello. Francesca Magnani. Carlo Romanini. Antonino De Lorenzo. Cite Citation. Permissions Icon Permissions. Pregnancy , multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis , gestational hypertension , body composition , women.

TABLE 1. Open in new tab. Open in new tab Download slide. TABLE 2. De Lorenzo. Multifrequency impedance in the assessment of body water losses during dialysis. Determination of intracellular water by multifrequency bioelectrical impedance. Search ADS. Improved prediction formula for total body water assessment in obese women.

Estimation of body fluid volumes using tetrapolar bioelectrical impedance measurements. Total body water in pregnancy: assessment by using bioelectrical impedance. Nutrition in pregnancy: proceedings of the tenth Study Group in the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

Google Preview. Resting metabolic rate and body composition of healthy Swedish women during pregnancy. Van Loan.

Predicting body cell mass with bioimpedance by using theoretical methods: a technological review.

Therefore, it gained no widespread use for screening purposes in an outpatient setting. Article Contents. Probability density plots were generated for resistance and reactance. Obstet Gynecol. Know the risks and potential benefits of clinical studies and talk to your health care provider before participating.

Bioimpedance pregnant women

Bioimpedance pregnant women. Associated Data

Two-factor repeated-measures analysis of variance and Tukey's test of significance were performed to evaluate differences in MF-BIA and in the calculated body water compartments.

Of the pregnant women, 57 were excluded from the analysis because they showed signs of chronic hypertension or other pathology ie, hypertension before the 20th week of gestation, gestational diabetes, abnormal oral-glucose-tolerance-test result, or intrauterine growth retardation , 53 were excluded because they had not completed 3 required measurements for different reasons, 50 had normal pregnancies, and 13 had gestational hypertension.

We excluded 13 women because they were taking drugs, corticosteroids, or low-dose aspirin. Descriptive analyses of data obtained from the control and hypertensive groups are shown in Table 1. Clinical data of the women with a normal pregnancy control group and those with gestational hypertension 1.

The BIA indexes showed an increasing trend in the control group and a decreasing trend in the hypertensive group. In fact, BIA 5 increased significantly between the first and third trimesters and between the second and third trimesters. Two-factor repeated-measures analysis of variance showed that TBW, ECW, and ICW were not significantly different between the hypertensive and control groups in the first trimester but were significantly different between the 2 groups in the second and third trimesters.

TBW, ECW, and ICW increased significantly and progressively throughout pregnancy in the control group and were significantly different between the first and second and third trimesters and between the second and third trimesters. On the contrary, TBW, ECW, and ICW decreased significantly and progressively in the hypertensive group throughout pregnancy and were significantly different between the first and second and third trimesters and between the second and third trimesters Table 2 and Figure 2.

Total body water TBW , extracellular water ECW , and intracellular water ICW in the women with a normal pregnancy control group and in those with gestational hypertension 1. The BIA index was significantly lower in the hypertensive group than in the control group in the second and third trimesters, suggesting a lack of plasma volume expansion through fluid-retention mechanisms in the hypertensive group Figure 1.

There were no significant differences in hematocrit between the 3 trimesters data not shown. As a consequence, cardiac output must increase. At the same time, the placental implantation process is responsible for the presence of a low-resistance shunt the placenta , with a subsequent overall effect of a decrease in blood pressure. Hemodynamic changes seem to play a central role in maternal adaptation to pregnancy. Fluid retention is very important in increasing plasma volume, which, in turn, is fundamental in cardiac output increase.

Under normal conditions, TBW and plasma volume are strictly interrelated 18 ; in turn, plasma volume correlates with birth weight in both humans and animals A defect in plasma volume expansion in pregnancy has been associated with poor pregnancy outcome and low birth weight 19 , 20 and, after a subclinical period, preeclampsia.

Therefore, an evaluation of variations in TBW in each of the 3 trimesters of pregnancy can provide important data about the maternal physiologic adaptation to pregnancy. The examinations must begin in the first trimester, when some pathologic events preeclampsia and intrauterine growth retardation are not established. It is well known that, during a normal pregnancy, there is progressive fluid retention with a subsequent increase in TBW 21 and in plasma volume.

The significant differences in BIA 5 , BIA 50 , and BIA between the 2 groups of pregnant women during the 3 trimesters accounted for the known increase in body-fluid volume in the control group. TBW, evaluated by MF-BIA, increased significantly during the 3 trimesters in the control group but not in the hypertensive group, in whom there was a decrease in TBW, strongly suggesting a hemodynamic maladaptation to pregnancy. A reduction in circulating plasma volume is one indicator of a maladaptation to pregnancy in women who develop gestational hypertension.

The mechanism for this relates to the balance between the increase in vascular diameter and endothelial damage that might occur in the absence of fluid redistribution and contribute to the development of gestational hypertension BIA is an easy and painless technique associated with high patient compliance. Hematocrit did not change significantly during pregnancy and hence it cannot be considered a good predictor of hemodynamic adaptations in pregnancy.

Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide.

Sign In or Create an Account. Sign In. Advanced Search. Article Navigation. Close mobile search navigation Article Navigation. Volume Article Contents. Multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis in women with a normal and hypertensive pregnancy Herbert Valensise. Oxford Academic. Google Scholar. Angela Andreoli. Stefano Lello. Francesca Magnani. Carlo Romanini. Antonino De Lorenzo. Cite Citation. Permissions Icon Permissions. Pregnancy , multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis , gestational hypertension , body composition , women.

TABLE 1. Open in new tab. Open in new tab Download slide. TABLE 2. De Lorenzo. Multifrequency impedance in the assessment of body water losses during dialysis. Determination of intracellular water by multifrequency bioelectrical impedance.

Search ADS. Improved prediction formula for total body water assessment in obese women. Estimation of body fluid volumes using tetrapolar bioelectrical impedance measurements.

Total body water in pregnancy: assessment by using bioelectrical impedance. Nutrition in pregnancy: proceedings of the tenth Study Group in the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

Diagnostic criteria for preeclampsia are the onset of hypertension after the 20 th week of gestation, measured on two different occasions and proteinuria [ 8 ]. The assessment of cardiac output and systemic vascular resistance adds significant information to blood pressure and heart rate.

As a key finding in prior trials, an increased cardiac output could be detected as early as in the 10 th —14 th week of gestation in women who developed preeclampsia or gestational hypertension later in pregnancy [ 9 ]. Thus, the early and significant difference in cardiac output compared to healthy pregnancies may be used as a diagnostic tool for early identification of women at risk for preeclampsia or gestational hypertension.

This crossover was not detected in patients with gestational hypertension and supports the hyperdynamic disease model for preeclampsia. The gold standard for the assessment of cardiac output is thermodilution using a cardiac catheter [ 11 ]. Although this is a suitable method for intensive care patients, it cannot be applied in an outpatient setting for repeated measurements in pregnant women. Echocardiography was previously applied to elucidate cardiovascular adaptations during pregnancy [ 12 ].

However, measurements are time consuming, technical demanding and investigator—dependent. Therefore, it gained no widespread use for screening purposes in an outpatient setting. We decided to perform a prospective trial in order to establish the applicability of bioimpedance cardiography for the assessment of cardiovascular parameters during pregnancy [ 13 ].

Several authors reported the reliable application of this technique in healthy pregnant women and patients suffering from preeclampsia, but large prospective cohort trials are scarce [ 14 — 18 ]. Between and , pregnant women were included in this prospective cohort study after providing written informed consent. A high number of women were included to evaluate also disease processes not primarily present and occurring throughout the pregnancy.

We measured cardiovascular parameters noninvasively by monitoring the tissue impedance of distinct thoracic regions [ 18 ]. An impedance cardiography monitor was used for non-invasive measurement of cardiac output, heart rate, blood pressure, systemic vascular resistance and stroke volume ICG hemodynamic measurement, Philips Medical Systems, Andover, MA, USA; www.

Two pairs of electrodes were placed on the neck and two pairs were placed on the trunk, respectively. The automatic assessment and data printout were performed after stable readings could have been achieved. To estimate the hemodynamic influence of a growing fetus compressing the Vena cava in a supine position, every measurement was performed in supine as well as in side position. Women were asked to participate in this study at their routine visit for the first ultrasound control at the outpatient department of the obstetrics and gynecology clinic usually performed between the 11 th —13 th week of gestation.

Patients with pre-existing diabetes, cardiac disease e. Every visit included medical history assessment, a physical examination to diagnose symptoms of preeclampsia and other pregnancy related diseases, an ECG and the measurement of cardiac output, blood pressure, heart rate, systemic vascular resistance and stroke volume. Cardiac output and concomitant data were recorded at the 11 th —13 th , 14 th —17 th , 18 th —22 nd , 23 rd —27 th , 28 th —32 nd , 33 rd —36 th and after the 37 th week of gestation as well as six weeks and six months post partum.

Every onset of a pregnancy related disease was recorded, evaluated and treated according to current guidelines [ 8 ]. Preeclampsia was defined as the new onset of hypertension and proteinuria in human pregnancy after the 20 th week of gestation [ 8 ].

The gestational age was calculated from the first day of the last menstrual bleeding and was corrected according to sonographic measurements fetal crown to rump length. A flow chart was added to depict final patient groups for the analysis performed in this study Fig. Nine patients suffered from gestational diabetes mellitus during a previous pregnancy.

Nine patients had a family history of preeclampsia. Due to a low number or heterogonous groups, patients with the aforementioned characteristics were not analyzed as specific group. For comparison of data, sets were tested for normal distribution Shapiro-Wilk test. To compare outcome parameters between groups of healthy and pathologic pregnancies, an analysis of variance was performed. The Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated to analyze relationships. Time points were compared pair-wise with a Sidak correction for the significance level due to the multiple comparisons applied herein.

A multiple linear regression was performed to assess the effect of cardiac output on birthweight including maternal age, body mass index and smoking habit. Figures were calculated and drawn by applying the spline function. Single data points were printed for comparisons with a low number of measurements. All further comparisons were performed with measurements in the side position.

Caption: Prev. All correlations are significant. This group had significantly increased cardiac output and heart rate in the first months and a significantly increased blood pressure throughout pregnancy. Eleven patients had a previously diagnosed hypertension, two patients developed preeclampsia, two patients developed HELLP syndrome, two patients had an abnormal Doppler and two patients suffered from preterm delivery. CO cardiac output, HR heart rate, BP-sys : systolic blood pressure, BP-dia : diastolic blood pressure, SVR systemic vascular resistance, SV stroke volume; all measurements are performed in side position, only significant and borderline significant p -values are shown.

Cardiac output in healthy women and patients during pregnancy. Caption: a Patients with previous pregnancy associated hypertension or preeclampsia blue compared to healthy women green ; b patients developing hypertension during the current pregnancy blue compared to healthy women green ; c patients developing preeclampsia blue compared to healthy women green ; CO: cardiac output; pp: post-partum.

Patients with a new onset of pregnancy related hypertension during this pregnancy had a significantly increased cardiac output due to an increased stroke volume compared to the healthy group Fig. In addition, cardiac output was significantly increased from 5.

A correlation analysis of cardiac output and systemic vascular resistance with birthweight in healthy women revealed a positive correlation for cardiac output and a negative correlation for systemic vascular resistance. The Pearson correlation coefficient for cardiac output was 0. We present a large cohort study with longitudinal measurements in different patient positions compared to previous trials [ 22 ].

The influence of body position on maternal hemodynamic parameters in healthy pregnancies was assessed and a significant reduction of cardiac output due to a reduced stroke volume was observed at the 33 rd —36 th week of gestation in supine position [ 14 ].

The significant influence of body position on cardiac output in the third trimester of pregnancy is in accordance with previous findings [ 23 ]. However, our data prove that body position is only relevant to cardiac parameters towards the end of pregnancy. However, we decided to use hemodynamic data acquired in the side position for all further comparisons described herein. However, stroke volume did not change significantly during healthy pregnancy.

We conclude therefore, that stroke volume was not responsible for the increased cardiac output. Our data suggest that systemic vascular resistance, which was already decreased at inclusion and further decreased until the 24 th week of gestation, drives cardiac output by reduced afterload and a higher heart rate. This difference may be due to our higher number of observations and different measurement equipment. Our data are further supported by Bosio et.

Heart rate also increased continuously from the 24 th week on and the diastolic blood pressure increased close to delivery. Both findings are in good agreement with the data presented by Volman et al. A recent meta-analysis by Meah et al. However, we did not exhibit an earlier drop of cardiac output at the end of the second trimester, which had been suggested based on the meta-analysis, but was not confirmed or rejected previously with data from a large cohort trial [ 22 ].

In addition to the healthy population, special groups of patients presenting a cardiovascular or pregnancy associated pathology or are at risk to develop one of these disorders were included. Women with previous pregnancy associated hypertension or preeclampsia had a different hemodynamic profile throughout pregnancy compared to healthy pregnancies without previous pathologies. A long-lasting effect on cardiovascular compliance after pregnancy was previously described in healthy pregnancies [ 24 ].

This may also be true after pathologic pregnancies. Significant adverse outcomes are reported in this group [ 25 ]. We suggest that a previous pregnancy associated disease may be a risk factor for adverse hemodynamic behavior in a consecutive pregnancy. The screening for disturbed cardiovascular adaptation during pregnancy may therefore be beneficial for women with a history of pregnancy-associated disease. In addition, we were able to measure cardiac parameters prior to disease onset and could provide insights in early adverse alterations of hemodynamic function.

An increased cardiac output during early pathologic pregnancy was previously described and supports the hypothesis of a hyperdynamic hemodynamic state inducing preeclampsia [ 9 , 26 ]. The increase of systemic vascular resistance later in pregnancy leads to hypertension and a reduction of cardiac output [ 10 ].

Bioimpedance cardiography may provide additional information for patients at risk for preeclampsia. However, distinct hemodynamic characteristics of these patient groups should further be specified in a multicenter trial. Interestingly, cardiac output showed an impact on birthweight in healthy pregnancies. Altered cardiovascular conditions in pregnancies with fetal growth restrictions were previously reported and are in good accordance with our data [ 2 , 21 , 27 , 28 ].

These findings should also be reevaluated in larger clinical trials. Gestational age and birthweight were also significantly decreased in hypertensive women. No significant difference between treated and untreated women could be detected. Although this prospective cohort trial included a high number of pregnant women compared to other trials, the number of patients diagnosed with preeclampsia and new onset of hypertension is limited.

Therefore, the findings in these subgroups have to be interpreted with caution. Further, not all patients participated in all measurement time points. Some groups were not analysed due to the limited number of patients thyroid disease, gestational diabetes and twin pregnancies. Measurements in pathologic groups were not analyzed in relation to the body mass index due to the limited number of observations.

In conclusion, cardiovascular adaptation during pregnancy is altered in women at risk for preeclampsia or reduced birthweigth. Distinct hemodynamic pattern were present early in pregnancy and could be assessed by bioimpedance cardiography at low costs without additional risk. The electrodes for cardiovascular measurements were provided by Philips Austria. No other funding was received.

MA, HZ and GW had the idea, designed the study protocol and performed the final preparation of this manuscript.

Other: Bioimpedance Analyser Bio-electrical impedance analysis BIA measures whole body or regional impedance by means of an electric current transmitted at different frequencies.

Information from the National Library of Medicine Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies. Criteria Inclusion Criteria: pregnant women at age of 16 or over with a viable pregnancy and who will fulfil the following:.

Group III: Maternal condition that could have direct impact on body fluid including:. Search for terms x. Save this study. Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies BiPAL The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators.

Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U. Federal Government. Know the risks and potential benefits of clinical studies and talk to your health care provider before participating. Read our disclaimer for details. Last Update Posted : April 4, Study Description. The purpose of our study is to find out if using a simple bed side test can tell us information about changes that occur in women's body water content.

We would like to check if certain medical conditions could affect body water contents. Bio-electrical impedance analysis BIA measures whole body or regional impedance by means of an electric current transmitted at different frequencies.

Maternal condition that could affect body fluid including: Pre-eclampsia requiring hospital admission. Hyperemesis gravidarum.

Major postpartum haemorrhage. Outcome Measures. Eligibility Criteria. Pregnant women admitted for caesarean section, induction of labour or has a medical condition that affect amount of fluid inside the body. Inclusion Criteria: pregnant women at age of 16 or over with a viable pregnancy and who will fulfil the following: Group I: Women attending for elective CS. Group III: Maternal condition that could have direct impact on body fluid including: Pre-eclampsia requiring hospital admission.

Hyperemesis gravidarum requiring hospital admission. Major postpartum haemorrhage equal or greater than ml following delivery. Group IV: gestational age matched controls.

Exclusion criteria: Maternal age less than 16 years at booking. Women who are not capable of giving consent. Unable to speak or read English to the appropriate level. Any others deemed to belong to a vulnerable group. Women who require pace maker or defibrillators. Alterations in body composition during pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol.

The total body water and the water turnover in pregnancy studied with deuterium oxide as isotopic tracer. J Clin Invest. Plasma volume in normal first pregnancy. J Obstet Gynaecol Br Commonw. Longitudinal changes and correlations of bioimpedance and anthropometric measurements in pregnancy: Simple possible bed-side tools to assess pregnancy evolution.

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. Epub Dec Correlation between birth weight and maternal body composition. Obstet Gynecol. Intravenous fluids for reducing the duration of labour in low risk nulliparous women. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. Immediate Postanaesthetic Recovery.

September DOH Nov Enhanced Recovery for Elective Surgery. Gregory, R et al. Can pre-operative carbohydrate loading be used in diabetic patients undergoing colorectal surgery? British Journal of Diabetes. Management of adults with diabetes undergoing surgery and elective procedures: Improving standards revised The Joint British Diabetes Societies for inpatient care.

Diabetes UK. Enhanced Recovery for Elective Caesarean Sections. University of Leicester Working Party. Eclampsia in the United Kingdom Epub Jul 6. Lyons G. Saving mothers' lives: confidential enquiry into maternal and child health Int J Obstet Anesth. Epub Mar 4. Substandard care in maternal mortality due to hypertensive disease in pregnancy in the Netherlands.

Incidence and predictors of severe obstetric morbidity: case-control study. Hypertensive disorders and severe obstetric morbidity in the United States. PLoS One. National Library of Medicine U. National Institutes of Health U. Department of Health and Human Services. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators.

Other: Bioimpedance Analyser. Study Type :. Estimated Enrollment :. Estimated Study Start Date :. Estimated Primary Completion Date :. Estimated Study Completion Date :. Cesarean section Women attending for elective CS. Edge ID

Bioimpedance pregnant women

Bioimpedance pregnant women

Bioimpedance pregnant women