This Learning Nurse website provides an independent, free and safe resource for ALL levels of nurses to assess, maintain and enhance their professional competence. Our Learning Nurse website is divided into three major sections. First is Assessment. Since immediate feedback is provided, our nursing apps, games and quizzes can also be used for fun, interactive, engaging and effective learning. Our second major learning resources section is e-Learning.
A real-time remote monitoring system for cardiac rehabilitation. Includes 16, approvals for 25, drug products since ; free monthly updates; search generic drugs for brand name drugs and vice versa; search drug name and active Freee covers all drugs from the Orange Book; Free pda games for nurses, manufacturer, FDA c approval nursds, package inserts description, clinical pharmacology, etc. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg. Drug Reference Applications A total of six drug reference applications were discussed in the eight articles. London, England: Critical care; In addition, Preggo sex facial accessed the websites of the applications to get the latest release information last access Frew June The experience of our physician author is that these resources are seldom useful at the point of care and seldom used by clinicians in that setting.
Interracial atm teen. Primary Sidebar
It is a comprehensive software program to be included on a personal digital assistant. Stan has been abandoned by its foe owner and needs your help to be healthy again. But, Barbara doesn't brush her teeth before she goes to bed. Vampire Nose Doctor. Princess Anna from the hit movie Frozen can't wait for the gates to Arendelle Nudity in college open up for one day so that she can meet all of the visitors from neighboring kingdoms. This sporty boy was practicing his skills on the soccer field when a fast-flying ball came out of nowhere and smacked him right in the face. Baby Dentist Day. A nurse is a person who is trained to give care Free pda games for nurses the people who are sick or injured. GirlGames has Teen games and Fashion games for our gamers with a sense for style. It's her first day as the registered nurse. Like Knee Operation, Appendix Surgery is also a simulation game. As a result, cavities are causing te Nkrses Baby Ear Doctor. It's very important that Santa have great eyesight. Doc McStuffins hasn't Free pda games for nurses taking very good care of her teeth lately, and her teeth are beginning to cause her a lot of pain as a result.
Nursing school is tough and studying can be very time-consuming.
- Naughty Nurses 1 2 3 4 5 Rating: 3.
- In this section we have developed, and are experimenting with, different kinds of educational nursing games.
The number of smartphone users is growing rapidly, including among healthcare professionals. In April , MEDLINE was searched to identify articles that discussed the design, development, evaluation, or use of smartphone-based software for healthcare professionals, medical or nursing students, or patients. A total of 55 articles discussing 83 applications were selected for this study from 2, articles initially obtained from the MEDLINE searches.
A total of 83 applications were documented: 57 applications for healthcare professionals focusing on disease diagnosis 21 , drug reference 6 , medical calculators 8 , literature search 6 , clinical communication 3 , Hospital Information System HIS client applications 4 , medical training 2 and general healthcare applications 7 ; 11 applications for medical or nursing students focusing on medical education; and 15 applications for patients focusing on disease management with chronic illness 6 , ENT-related 4 , fall-related 3 , and two other conditions 2.
Many medical applications for smartphones have been developed and widely used by health professionals and patients. Medical applications make smartphones useful tools in the practice of evidence-based medicine at the point of care, in addition to their use in mobile clinical communication. Also, smartphones can play a very important role in patient education, disease self-management, and remote monitoring of patients. Recent years have seen an increased adoption of smartphones by healthcare professionals as well as the general public [ 1 - 6 ].
The smartphone is a new technology that combines mobile communication and computation in a handheld-sized device, facilitating mobile computing at the point of care.
We present a systematic literature review in this regard. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first study for classifying and summarizing healthcare applications for smartphones in a systematic literature review format. The healthcare system is highly mobile in nature, involving multiple clinical locations such as clinics, inpatient wards, outpatient services, emergency departments, operating theaters, intensive care units ICUs , laboratories, etc.
As such, working in the healthcare system requires extensive mobility of healthcare professionals as well as communication and collaboration among different individuals, including their colleagues and patients. Healthcare professionals mainly used pagers for mobile communication until the wide availability of cell phones in s [ 11 ]. Further details on smartphones and their operating-system platforms are discussed in Appendix I.
Table 1 in Appendix I illustrates an overview of OS features of smartphone platforms and Table 2 in Appendix I illustrates the support of common features by smartphone OS platforms with the availability of hardware in the device. A systematic review summarizing 23 surveys on PDA usage by healthcare professionals conducted in the U. Access to information systems or clinical applications in healthcare settings is mainly provided through stationary computers, which does not fully support the mobile nature of healthcare.
In response, additional portable and wireless mobile information communication technologies MICTs such as Computers on Wheels COWs or Workstations on Wheels WOWs are used in some healthcare setup to further facilitate access to information technologies at the point of care [ 13 ]. The increased adoption of smartphones by healthcare professionals demonstrates the opportunity for improved clinical communication, and access to information systems and clinical tools at the point of care, or from anywhere at anytime [ 11 , 13 - 26 ].
Accordingly, many software applications have been produced for healthcare professionals in order to facilitate the practice of evidence-based medicine EBM at the point of care.
The main stakeholders in the healthcare process are healthcare consumers patients. Consumer-oriented care, where patients are directly involved in the process of care, will greatly improve the healthcare process. The management of diseases with chronic conditions is very costly. Department of Health and Human Services demonstrated that about Self-management and remote monitoring of patients are becoming viable solutions for management of diseases with chronic conditions, and smartphones are playing very important role [ 29 - 35 ].
Clinician-led patient education in disease prevention and management through smartphones and text-messaging is convenient and effective [ 36 , 37 ]. A study performed by comScore demonstrated an increase of We discuss 6 major operating systems OS for smartphones and their current market share and worldwide market share forecasts for , and compare their features in Table 1 and Table 2 in Appendix I. In this study, we present a systematic literature review of healthcare applications for smartphones following the PRISMA statement for systematic reviews [ 38 ].
MEDLINE citations were searched in April , using the PubMed search engine, for articles that discuss the design, development, evaluation, or use of smartphone software applications to be used by healthcare professionals or patients.
The reference lists of included articles were also searched systematically. This study mainly focused on the functionality of software for smartphones within the scope of healthcare. As such, the inclusion criteria for the articles were the design, development, evaluation or use of smartphone-based applications for healthcare.
Those articles were excluded from this study. This study also excluded articles that were not published in English. Irrelevant documents by the strategy are excluded manually. The titles and abstracts of the identified citations were read to screen the articles based on the selection criteria described in the previous section.
The remaining articles were read in full text to extract information from each article. The extracted information is presented in tables Tables 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 including smartphone application names, supported operating system platforms, descriptions and functionalities of the applications. In addition, we accessed the websites of the applications to get the latest release information last access in June The literature searches resulted in a total of 2, articles, which were then initially screened based on the titles and abstracts.
The inclusion and exclusion criteria, described in the previous section, were followed in the screening process resulting in the exclusion of 2, articles. The remaining articles were then reviewed in full text, and an additional 59 articles were excluded because they did not primarily discuss smartphone applications but used smartphones for other purposes.
One article was excluded because it was not written in English. The resulting 55 articles, discussing 83 smartphone-based healthcare applications, met the eligibility criteria.
The earliest eligible articles were published in , and 24 of the 55 articles were published in through April Trial Flow Diagram. This figure presents the trial flow diagram of identifying eligible articles for this study. A total of 2, articles were returned from the literature searches. Initially, a total of 2, articles were screened based on their titles and abstracts satisfying the inclusion and exclusion criteria. An additional 59 articles were excluded after full text review of articles.
Finally, 55 articles discussing 83 smartphone-based healthcare applications met the eligibility criteria. The applications were grouped by the targeted user of the applications, as divided into three groups: 1 healthcare professionals, 2 medical or nursing students, and 3 patients. There are many smartphone-based applications for healthcare professionals.
In this study, a total of 57 applications for healthcare professionals were identified from 43 eligible articles. These applications were grouped into 7 categories based on functional similarity: disease diagnosis, drug reference, medical calculators, literature search, clinical communication, HIS clients, and medical training. Disease diagnosis applications were designed to access diagnosis and treatment information in a few taps on a smartphone.
A total of 21 disease diagnosis applications were discussed in 16 articles. Table 3 in Appendix II provides detailed information about the 21 applications. Of these, eight articles mainly focused on the overview and uses of applications [ 11 , 17 , 23 , 26 , 39 - 42 ], four articles published surveys on the use of the applications [ 16 , 43 - 45 ], two articles compared the applications in terms of treatment recommendations [ 46 , 47 ], and two articles investigated the application of smartphones to diagnosis and treatment [ 48 , 49 ].
Handheld versions of printed medical references for disease diagnosis were available on smartphones, providing information on infectious diseases, pathogens, diagnosis, treatment, medications, differential diagnosis etc. These applications also provide internal links for easy navigation and searching. They found that only One of our authors LS , a practicing physician, has observed that his colleagues in U. There were six applications providing common laboratory test information, including reference values and interpretation, causes for abnormal increased or decreased values, and laboratory unit conversions.
Smartphones can also be applied in the process of diagnosis and treatment using software application. A simple smartphone application for eye-care professionals is a visual acuity test. For example, EyeChart is an iPhone application that includes the Snellen eye chart to measure visual acuity [ 41 ]. A similar application is EyePhone, which includes a distance E-test, near visual acuity test, color test, Amsler grid, and pupil gauge test [ 42 ]. Our physician author, who frequently practices in low-resource clinical settings, has found that having convenient access to a Snellen chart is indispensable although its use is limited to patients that are literate in the Roman alphabet.
The DizzyFIX application guides clinicians in the Epley Maneuver, a series of precise head and body positions that is the primary treatment of Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo [ 41 ]. Mezzana et al. Joundi et al. Smartphone-based disease diagnosis applications are useful evidence-based resources at the bedside. These applications can also help clinicians in identifying appropriate laboratory tests based on symptoms, decreasing unnecessary tests and reducing cost of care.
Other applications use clinical algorithms to help clinicians understand and apply principles of disease diagnosis.
The flowcharts included in 5MCC and Pocket Guide to Diagnostic Tests, for example, can help physicians see at a glance diagnostic possibilities that they may have overlooked. A total of six drug reference applications were discussed in the eight articles. Table 4 in Appendix II provides detailed information about the drug reference applications. Six of these articles mainly focused on the overview and use of the applications [ 11 , 39 , 40 , 50 - 52 ], and two articles published surveys on use of the applications [ 43 , 53 ].
The drug reference applications generally include the names of drugs, their indications, dosages, pharmacology, drug-drug interactions, contraindications, cost, and identifying characteristics. FDA Drugs, which includes package inserts or official labels of FDA-approved prescription and over-the-counter drugs, shares this functionality and also searches by active ingredients [ 39 ].
SafeMed Pocket, which was designed to be used in Sweden and lists drugs that are licensed for sale in that country, is integrated with a clinical decision support system CDSS for use by geriatiric homecare nurses to warn of drug-drug interactions, therapeutic duplications, and dosages that are unsuitable for elderly people [ 52 ]. A medical calculator or clinical calculator is a software program for calculating various clinical scores and indices such as body mass index BMI , body surface area BSA , coronary heart disease risk, individual drug dosing, etc.
Usually calculation of clinical scores or indices involves complex formulas using several input parameters. Medical calculators typically provide a user interface to enter parameters and calculate scores using a standard formula.
Users do not need to use or even know the actual formula for calculating a clinical score or index. Initially, medical calculator software programs were available on personal computers. Later, online versions of some calculators were accessible through the Internet. However, physicians were often unable to use this software at the point of care due to a lack of computer access.
Now medical calculators are available for several smartphone platforms. Table 5 in Appendix II presents eight smartphone-based medical calculator applications that were discussed in 10 articles [ 11 , 16 , 26 , 39 , 41 - 43 , 47 , 55 , 56 ].
The experience of our physician author is that these resources are seldom useful at the point of care and seldom used by clinicians in that setting. However, our review found six literature search applications discussed in 15 articles [ 41 , 42 , 45 , 50 , 51 , 55 - 64 ].
The search result is then displayed by grouping the articles into several clusters. The performance of MDoT in answering clinical question varies with the selection of search engine. The MDoT client application required improvement in navigational and functional characteristics such as incorporating visual cues to indicate a visited citation [ 57 ]. In , the development and support for MDoT client application was stopped, introducing compatibility issues with future operating system versions [ 65 ].
Sophia is very fond of animals, and she loves to observe them in their natural habitat. This is a HTML5 game where 15 items are randomly selected from a pool of 45 questions; so each time the game will be different. Nurse Nadia. This precious baby girl loves to sneak chocolate, gummy worms and any other sweet snack she can sink her teeth into, behind her mother's back. There are at least seven hundred images that accompany the processes along with information on the correct way to fill out the paperwork and document what was done. The games are grouped into different categories for easy reference. Baby Glen has just reached the bottom of his bag of candy that he collected last Halloween.
Free pda games for nurses. Nurse Games
It seems that Pou is having some trouble hearing and could use Injured Monster Doctor. This cute baby monster was playing with her pet bat when the branch she was hanging from suddenly broke, causing her to fall to the ground and hit her head.
Now she'll need to visit the emergency April Fools Dentist. This prankster loves to trick her family and friends on April Fools' Day. In fact, her family is so used to being pranked, that they rarely believe a word she says on April Fools' Day. Frankie Stein Eye Doctor. Frankie Stein has been having trouble seeing the blackboard from her desk. Even after moving to the front row, she still has to squint to make out what the teacher is writing.
That's why she's de Pou Eye Care. You and your buddy Pou were playing in the park when a bee flew up to Pou and stung him in the eye. Now Pou's eye is enflamed and causing him a great deal of pain. Just to be safe, take him to th Pou Nose Doctor. Pou loves the springtime because he enjoys smelling the sweet aroma from all of the freshly blossomed flowers.
But lately, it seems that Pou is having some trouble smelling this irresistible aroma Dojo Dental Care. Taking care of your teeth is a good habit to keep. Unfortunately, Dojo seems to have missed the memo and has been forgetting to brush his teeth before bed.
Everything he eats causes unbearable pa Baby Girl Got the Flu. This cute baby girl was enjoying a day of fun in the sun by the pool when she began uncontrollably coughing. She's not feeling very well and should be examined by a doctor so that she can begin tr Pou Tooth Problems. Today started like any other day. You and Pou enjoyed a delicious breakfast while watching your favorite morning television shows.
But, Pou sud Clawdeen Doctor. Clawdeen Wolf was passing notes in class when she suddenly began feeling very ill. As the day went on, her symptoms progressed. Her nose won't stop running and she's had the chills for hours, and Chelsea Flu Doctor. It's flu season, and it seems that baby Chelsea has come down with this terrible virus. She's been running a fever for days and her nose won't stop running.
After a long week of miserable symptom Minion Nose Doctor. This cute minion spends his days working long hours in the factory. Lately, all of his coworkers have fallen ill, so he has twice as much work to do than he usually does. After another long day o Pou at the Doctor. You're the proud owner of a not-so conventional pet named Pou.
Pou is a strange alien from a distant planet who requires a lot of attention. This cute triangular alien loves to play, and needs to Selena Gomez at the Doctor. This popular teen will need to make a trip to the doctor so that he can patch up her painful wou Girl at the Dentist. Going to the dentist for routine check-ups is a great way to stay on top of your dental hygiene.
This lovely teen is long overdue for a check up and now her teeth are finally starting to reflect h Baby Dentist Day. This cute baby loves to suck on lollipops while he plays with his favorite toys.
But, he isn't very interested in spending time brushing his teeth before bed. As a result, cavities are causing te Baby Monster Flu Doctor. It's flu season at Monster High, and it seems like all of the students are getting sick.
Minion Wearing Glasses. This busy minion is always hard at work on a big project. Every day, he heads to the factory to produce amazing machines and technology for his boss.
But, it seems that his vision is beginning to Ariel Nose Doctor. Princess Ariel loves to swim around her palace with her friends in search of fun and excitement. But lately, Ariel has been having trouble breathing underwater. This is uncommon for a royal merm Minion Patient Nose Doctor. A nasty flu has been going around the factory, and this little minion seems to be coming down with the bug.
Normally, he breezes through his work as high speeds. But today, this productive minion Baby Monster Nose Problems. It's flu season, and this cute baby monster girl thinks she may have been contaminated. Her nose has been running for days and she can't seem to stop sneezing. That's why she's made an appointmen Boy Dentist.
This sporty boy was practicing his skills on the soccer field when a fast-flying ball came out of nowhere and smacked him right in the face. After a few minutes of being dazed, this cute boy reali Justin Bieber Tooth Problems. Justin Bieber is a talented and dreamy American musician with a huge following of devoted fans.
He spends a lot of time touring the world so that all of his fans around the world have the opportun Baby Flu Doctor Care. It's flu season, which means it's especially important to cover your mouth when you cough and sneeze. Unfortunately for this young girl, one of her classmates got her sick with the flu and she's b Puppy Dental Care. This precious puppy has been eating snacks all day and now his breath is very stinky.
It smells like it's time to take your furry friend to the animal dentist so that he can get his teeth cleaned Scooby Doctor. Today a very special guest has stopped by your clinic for some medical attention. Scooby Doo is a brave, snack loving pup who likes to hep people by searching for clues and solving mysteries.
Dentist Fear. Fanny has just alerted her mother that she's suffering from a terribly painful toothache. Her mother insisted that Fanny visit the dentist at once so that he can take a look at her teeth. But wha Dentist Slacking. Sarah is getting ready for her dentist appointment this afternoon by packing up all of her favorite pastimes.
Her only problem is that s Draculaura Bad Teeth. Draculaura is a gorgeous vampire who attends Monster High. This lovely student uses her sharp fangs to feed on prey. But, lately, she's been skipping brushing her teeth before bed. Now, her very Nose Doctor. It's flu season, and this high school has been hit hard.
All of the young students seem to be getting sick, and they are all complaining about the same symptoms. The girls have been reporting tha Demi Lovato Tooth Problems. Demi Lovato is an American pop star and television personality. She is a very busy girl who typically has a couple of projects that she's working on at the same time. Lately, she has been traveli Barbara at the Dentist.
Barbara loves to eat chocolates and other candies while she watches her favorite television shows. But, Barbara doesn't brush her teeth before she goes to bed. This bad habit has resulted in majo Baby Tooth Problems. Taking candy from a baby isn't always easy. This precious baby girl loves to sneak chocolate, gummy worms and any other sweet snack she can sink her teeth into, behind her mother's back.
But now Santa Eye Care Doctor. It's very important that Santa have great eyesight. Every year, Santa pilots his gorgeous red sleigh through the sky and around the world so that he can distribute gifts for Christmas. But lately Minion at the Doctor. This little minion was trying to take a break from all of his hard work by soaking up some sun on his day off. But right as he kicked his shoes off and prepared for a relaxing day, a ship from a d Animals Dentist.
Having clean teeth is very important. Unfortunately, it seems that these cute animals didn't get the memo. Doctor Crazy Monsters. These cute monsters have been badly hurt.
They love to play around and scare all of the other kids. But this time, they got a little rowdy and someone was injured! Use your medical skills to hea Vet Slacking. Sarah spent many years as a nurse to people before she realized her true calling. Sarah loves animals, and she can't stand to see them in need. She has ben hired by the local veterinarian as the Baby Butterfly. Sophia is very fond of animals, and she loves to observe them in their natural habitat.
When Sophia was walking around, doing her routine check on the creatures in the neighborhood, she stumbled u Nurse Girl Dress Up. Britney is so happy she became a nurse.
It took a lot of schooling, but she finally achieved her dream, and now she realizes how important it was to really work hard and study even harder with her Cute Doctor Dress Up.
I've always wanted to be a doctor, but then I thought I would really need to on call pretty much all the time, and that's just not going to happen.
I need my time to relax, catch up on TV, and, we Mind Doctor. The doctor-patient relationship is a connection of trust and reliability, so show that you're a professional by dressing up for the job! You can be a nurse in scrubs, or you can become a doctor in Chic Nurse Style. It's Ellie's first day at work as an intern for this famous hospital. Now she's going to pick up her scrubs and uniform and love the fun of working at a busy hospital! Nurse Nadia.
Everyone goes to Nurse Nadia to cure their illnesses and solve their problems. Maternity Ward. When a mother gives birth to her a baby boy or baby girl, she wants to make sure the little newborn is getting all the attention and care it deserves.
That's why they entrust the young baby to the Virtual Puppy. Adopt and take care of your own personal puppy! He needs to be fed, weighed, and take his medicine, so be sure to pay attention to exactly what he wants. If you're really good at taking care of t Nurse Dress Up. The nursing industry doesn't leave a lot of room for style, but this clever nurse has found a way to make scrubs a fashionable and desirable. This beautiful nurse is about to change the way the wo Fun Girl Nurse.
It's her first day as the registered nurse. Dress up this cute nurse in a stylish outfit so she can be the best dressed in the hospital! Doctor Dress Up. This adorable doctor loves to help patients and care for people. But she also loves looking good, and everyone knows that plain color scrubs can be a little drab.
Brighten up the hospital with so Love in War. All's fair in love and war, especially with love IN war! This field medic and soldier fell in love, and now they have to avoid the staring soldiers for a private moment to kiss and share their lov Amy's Shelter for Animals.
Amy loves animals and animals love Amy! Little Doctors. Play doctor dressup with these fun nurse scrubs, stethoscopes and syringes. Get stylish with a matching hat and accessories! Flu Epidemic. It's you against the flu! As the latest epidemic sweeps through the world and devastates our population, it's up to you to diagnose, prescribe, and treat wave after wave of sick, worried patients.
School Nurse. This smart and sophisticated school nurse will be there to help if you need her! This nurse is ready to save lives, but she needs help in getting dressed. Dress up this beautiful nurse with her nurse attire and medical equipment. Cute Pet Nurse. Help this nurse doll dress up and help sick animals get better. Pets are not afraid of this cute nurse that's for sure!
Girly Nurse. You're Girly Nurse! Give all patients their flu injections. Crystal Flu Doctor. Crystal was playing in the park when suddenly it started to snow. Now she has a nasty flu and she needs treatment. Help Nurse Audrey and play doctor!
Check Crystal's temperature and heartbeat, help My Dream Hospital. My Dream Hospital is best emergency doctor simulator for all future doctors, nurses and surgeons. Start your medical career today and work at your dream job!
Play doctor game with real surgery and Elsa Role Experience. The beautiful princess Elsa wants to experience the joy of different kinds of roles. Such as nurse,stewardess,astronaut,sheerleader and so on. Let's dress her with appropriate clothes,shoes,and acces Nurse Kitten Chan Dress Up. Choose cute dresses and accessories for our little Nurse Kitten. Princess Cesarean Pregnancy. The cute princess Elisa is nine months pregnant and expecting a beautiful baby next month.
Suddenly, she had a labor pain and visited the hospital. Doctor diagnosed her and said "it is mandatory to Baby Barbie Chickenpox Attack. Help baby Barbie recover from the chickenpox attack caring for her and fulfilling all her needs.
Use your nurse skills to take the body temperature first. The thermometer indicates the baby girl ha Dog Pet Rescue. Stan has been abandoned by its previous owner and needs your help to be healthy again. Take the dog to your vet office, wash him to see what injuries he has and start the treatment right away. Zoo Doctor. Help these lovely zoo animals and nurse them back to health! They're really clumsy and get into a lot of trouble.. Will you help them?!
Girly Nurse Makeover. This lovely girl was just hired as the new head nurse for the leading hospital in the nation. Today is her first day on the job, so she wants to make a good first impression on her colleagues. Taking Bath for Your Cat.
You just came home from the animal shelter after adopting an adorable pet kitty. The kitty wasn't receiving proper care in her last home, and now it's up to you to nurse this adorable kitten back Precious Kitty Dentist.
This precious little kitty cat has to go to the dentist because she broke a tooth! She was playing tug of war with a big pit bull dog, and it broke all of the little guy's teeth! Well, at least y Baby Zoo Hospital. Take in the sick baby animals to cure them with some rest and relaxation! Your hospital is designed specifically to nurse them back to health. Use the little pink mat to section off the cute anim Cute Baby Daycare. These little tinkers are some of the cutest babies you've ever seen!
You're lucky you get to spend the day looking after them in daycare. But be careful to be a good daycare nurse, give each baby wh Barbie Healing Kiss. We have enhanced the games software to produce a Report that you can print out and keep for your records, or to hand in for assignments.
Click on a Title below to open up a specific nursing educational game in a new window. If you find the audio annoying or distracting, click the Mute button on your computer. This is a HTML5 game where 15 items are randomly selected from a pool of 45 questions; so each time the game will be different.
Take this game and see whether you qualify as a Super Nurse. Note: pharmaceutical terms are used for the vitamins, i.
A Systematic Review of Healthcare Applications for Smartphones
They are classified as acyanotic or cyanotic defects. Acyanotic defects occur when a left-to-right shunt is present that allows a mixture of oxygenated and unoxygenated blood to enter the systemic circulation. Common cyanotic defects include tetralogy of Fallot and transposition of the great vessels. Tetralogy of Fallot involves four defects that include pulmonic stenosis, ventricular septal defect, right ventricular hypertrophy, and an aorta that overrides the ventricular septal defect.
Transposition of the great vessels is a condition in which the aorta arises from the right ventricle instead of the left ventricle, and the pulmonary artery arises from the left ventricle instead of the right ventricle, thereby causing a reversal of the normal position of these arteries.
Transposition of the great vessels is incompatible with life unless septal defects are also present to allow mixing of blood from the two circulations. Acyanotic defects include coarctation of aorta, patent ductus arteriosus, and ventricular septal defect. Coarctation of the aorta is the narrowing of the aorta proximal to the ductus arteriosus preductal , distal to the ductus arteriosus postductal , or level with the ductus arteriosus auxtaductal.
The position of the narrowing during fetal development determines circulation to the lower body and development of collateral circulation. Patent ductus arteriosus is the failure of the structure needed for fetal circulation to close after birth. Ventricular septal defect is the incomplete development of the septum that separates the right and left ventricles, and it often accompanies other defects.
Treatment may include management with medications, open heart surgery to repair or resect, or to temporarily correct the defect until the child is older and growth takes place. Here are five 5 nursing care plans NCP and nursing diagnosis for congenital heart diseases:. Decreased Cardiac Output: Inadequate blood pumped by the heart to meet metabolic demands of the body. Activity Intolerance : Insufficient physiologic or physiological energy to endure or complete required or desired activity.
Compromised Family Coping: A usually supportive primary person family member, significant other, or close friend insufficient, ineffective, or compromised support, comfort, assistance or encouragement that may be needed by the individual to manage or master adaptive tasks related to his or her health challenge.
Risk for Infection : At increased risk for being invaded by pathogenic organisms. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Notify me of follow-up comments by email. Notify me of new posts by email. Sign in. Log into your account. Password recovery. Forgot your password? Get help. Please enter your comment! Please enter your name here.
Tachycardia, bradycardia, and ectopic beats can further compromise cardiac output. Older patients are especially sensitive to the loss of atrial kick in atrial fibrillation. The failing heart may not be able to respond to increased oxygen demands. Digoxin Lanoxin. Alprostadil Prostin VR Pediatric.
Assess level of fatigue, ability to perform ADL and other activities in relation to severity of the condition. Inform of activity or exercise restrictions and to set own limits for exercise and activity.